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Timur Beg Timur

tin, ore, tin-stone, furnace, cent and deposits

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TIMUR, (TIMUR BEG, TIMUR LENG, TAMERLANE, the latter a corrup tion of Timur Leng,"Timur the Lame"), Mon gol conqueror : b. Kesh, near Samarcand, about 1336; d. Otrar, 17 Feb. 1405. He was a descend ant of Genghis Khan and became chief of his tribe in 1370, having previously reigned jointly for some years with his brother-in-law, Hussien, of whom he became jealous and whom he put to death, after defeating him in a short civil war. He established a firm government in his dominions and then embarked on his career of conquest. He subdued Persia and the whole of central Asia from the Great Wall of China to Moscow, and in 1398 invaded India, which he mastered from the Indus to the mouth of the Ganges. His cruelty knew no bounds. On one occasion, it is recorded, he massacred 100,000 prisoners, while on the banks of the Ganges he was called by the emperor of the East and other princes to aid in repelling the Turks under Bajazet. He wrested Syria from the Mamelukes on his return journey, overran the sultan's dominions with his vast army and on 20 June 1402 met Bajazet on the plain of Angora, routed his immense army and took him pris oner. In 1404 he began preparations for an expedition into China, and early in 1405 began the advance which was stopped by his death. Timur, however, was not a mere barbarian. He was an able administrator, with many states manlike traits, a patron of science and art and is also reputed to have been an author, though on dubious evidence. Consult Howorth,

lain) (1586; Eng. trans., 1595) ; Malcolm, tory of Persia.) TIN, a hard, white, ductile metal, obtained by smelting tin-stone or cassiterite — so-called from the Cassiterides, islands from which it was first brought into European markets. Tin appears to have been known in the time of Moses; and at a somewhat later period in Jew ish history it was brought by the ships of Tars hish from the islands east of the Persian Gulf. The Phoenicians traded largely in the tin ores of Cornwall, which was then, as now, celebrated for its mineral wealth. The mountains which

separate Galicia from Portugal were also very productive of tin in ancient times, and still con tinue unexhausted. The mountains between Saxony and Bohemia have been wrought as tin mines for several centuries and still con tinue productive. Mines of it occur in the Peninsula of Malacca, in India, in Chile, in Mex ico, in Peru, etc. Large deposits of tin-stone have been discovered in Queensland, New South Wales and Tasmania.

Tin-stone.— Tin-stone or tin dioxide (SnO,) is the only ore used for obtaining me tallic tin. Its chemical composition is oxygen 21.4 per cent, tin 78.6 per cent. It is found dis seminated throughout the alluvium of valleys or in lode at considerable depths beneath the surface; the former deposits yield what is called stream-tin, while from the latter mine-tin is ob tained. The first process to which the ore is subjected is grinding. The ground ore is then washed, which removes the impurities; for the specific gravity is so high that it is easy to wash away the earthy matter, and even some of the foreign metallic ores with which it is often mingled. But there are other bodies so nearly of the same specific gravity of the tin ore that they cannot be thus removed. The ore is then roasted in a reverberatory furnace, whereby most of the sulphur and arsenic are expelled. The ore, thus freed as much as possible from foreign matter, is mixed with from 15 to 20 per cent of its weight of pulverized anthracite coal and a small proportion of flux, generally lime stone, and heated strongly in a reverberatory furnace, so as to bring the whole into the state of fusion which is kept up with gradually in creasing temperature for about eight hours. The lime unites with the earthy matters still mixed with the ore and flows with them into a liquid slag, while the coal reduces the oxide of tin to the metallic state. The reduced tin falls by its own weight to the bottom, and is, at the end of about eight hours, let out by tapping a hole in the furnace which had been filled with clay.

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