TISCHENDORF, Konstan tin von, German biblical critic: b. Lengenfeld, Saxony, 18 Jan. 1815; d. Leipzig, 7 Dec. 1874. He was educated at Leipzig, where he qualified as a lecturer in 1840. In the latter year he went to Paris and deciphered the 'Codex Ephrami> and soon afterward he began to travel extensively in Europe, Egypt, Sinai and Palestine in search of biblical manuscripts. In 1844 he saved from the flames in the Con vent of Saint Catharine on Mount Sinai a valuable manuscript of the Old Testament, but failed to get possession of more than a part of it. This part he published in facsimile in 1846 as the 'Codex so named in honor of his patron, the king of Saxony. He was appointed in 1845 extraordi nar• professor, in 1850 ordinary honorary professor and in 1859 ordinary professor of theology and biblical palmography at Leipzig. He again visited the East in 1853 and in 1859 he made a third visit at the cost 'of the Russian government. On the third journey to Sinai he brought back the rest of his 'Codex Friderico-Augustanus,) better known as the 'Codex Sinaiticus,' the oldest Greek manu script of the Bible, containing the entire New Testament and the Epistle of Barnabas, be sides much of the Old Testament. (See Cooax SINAITICUS). A magnificent facsimile edition was published in four volumes at Saint Peters burg in 1862. In 1869 Tischendorf was ennobled
by the emperor. Among his contributions to the Lextual criticsm of the New and the Greek Old Testament are 10 editions between 1843 and 1870, the largest being 'Monumenta Sacra Inedita: Nova Collectio) (1855-70). He is sued several editions of the Greek New Testa ment, of which the eighth critical edition (two vols., 1864-72) is of great importance. In his 'Novum Testamentum Triglottum) (1854) he rinted together his Greek text, the Latin of Jerome and the German of Luther. His 'Synopsis Evangelica' (5th ed. 1854) should also be mentioned in connection with this part of his work. He edited the Septuagint with critical appendix (1850; 7th ed. 1887) and on the New Testament apocrypha and pseudepi grapha published 'De Evangeliorum Apocry phorum, Origine et Us& (1851) ; 'Acta Apos tolorum Apocrypha' (1851) ; (Evangelia Apocrypha> (1853) ; and 'Apocalypses Apocry phx) (1866). 'In wann warden unsere Evan .gelien verfasst ?) (1865; Eng. trans.) he shows a strongly conservative tendency. He described his travels in the works (Reise in den Orient' (1845-46) and 'Aus dem Heiligen Lande' (1862).