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Tokio

city, school, public, shoguns, imperial, parks and schools

TOKIO, tO'IcE-6, or TOKYO, the capital of Japan, situated at the head of the land-locked Bay of Tokio, on the east coast of central Hondo, and at the mouth of the Sumida Gawa. Besides the latter river, which divides the city into two unequal parts, Tokio is intersected by a large number of canals, which are generally crossed by wooden bridges. Some of the canals form concentric courses, enclosing a number of islands, one within the other; and on the inner most of these stands the imperial This large cluster of buildings is surrounded by mag nificent gardens, and enclosed by high walls and fosses. On the outer islands are most of the government departments and foreign lega tions. Surrounding these central islands, the city spreads out on all sides, with a rather irregular and complex street plan. There are numerous parks in and around the city, some of them being large and beautifuL Practically all the houses are built of wood. Besides the palace the only notable buildings are some of the numerous temples, especially that of Kwannon, and the temple of the Shoguns. There are six European churches, the finest being the Russian cathedral. Tokio contains about 70 hospitals of good standing, including the Komagome Hospital for epidemics and the Tokio Charity Hospital. The former is sup ported by the city and the latter by the Im perial Court. There also exists an asylum for orphans of the poor, established by the city. Ac cording to the latest returns on educational af fairs there are about 500 public and private primary schools and kindergartens. The num ber of children of school age is about 225,000 of whom about 80 per cent are in attendance. There are 35 middle schools, public and pri vate, of which six are for girls. The schools higher than middle grade and placed under the direct control of the Department of Education number 13, including the Imperial University, the First High School, the Higher Commercial School, School of Foreign Languages, the Tokio Higher Technical School, Higher Male Normal School and Higher Female Normal School. Besides there are two public normal supported by the Tokio Prefecture. The keiogijiku, Waseda and Women's Univer sity are most prominent among the private high class institutions, among which are included 10 other colleges of law, economics, philosophy and religion. In addition to those above men

tioned, there are over 280 public and private schools, mostly of the middle school grade, teaching special subjects. The city has a num ber of libraries opened to the public, including the imperial Library at Uyeno Park. The sanitary condition of the city is in a fair con dition, though street drainage is not so well advanced as in Western countries. Each ku (ward) has sanitary organization supported 'by rate levies from the inhabitants themselves. The metropolis is well supplied with parks and open spaces. The largest parks are the Shiba, Uyeno and Hibiya parks. In the first two are beautiful temples connected with the old To kugawa family, and here the remains of the Shoguns are buried. At Uyeno also is the Imperial Museum. Automobiles have been in troduced as a means of transportation and an line is in operation, in addition to the electric tramways. Streets are being laid out regularly of late years and modern dwell:. ings are being erected. Great harbor works have been undertaken by the municipal assem bly at a cost of 37,000,000 yen. There are also a modern water-supply system excellent street railways, gas and electric light, macadamized roads, public works, etc. all carried on accord ing to methods of civilized zed cities all over the world. The municipal council is elected by the municipal assembly, and the latter is chosen by popular vote. Although the principal railroad centre of the empire, Tokio is not an import ant manufacturing or commercial city. Its port is Yokohama, near the entrance to the bay. The city was founded in 1456 and in 1590 it became the capital of the Shoguns, the em perors residing at Kioto. With the downfall of the Shoguns in 1868, Tokio (till then known as Yedo) became the residence of the emperors and the sole capital. It has several times suf fered from earthquakes and conflagrations. Pop. 2,244,796.

ToKoLY, tekel-71, or Em erich, COUNT, Hungarian patriot. See Taxatt.