TOLEDO, Ohio, city, county-seat of Lucas County, on the Maumee River, near its mouth; lat. 41 30' N., long. 83° 32' W. The city is 587 feet above sea-level. It is 96 miles west of Cleveland, 124 miles north of Columbus and 234 miles east of Chicago. The northern corpora tion line is within two miles of the Michigan boundary. The city lies on both sides of the Maumee River, the principal business section being on the left bank; it extends from the river mouth, where the stream opens into Maumee Bay, to a point nine miles up stream. The area of the city is 31.59 square miles.
Commerce and The lo cation of Toledo, at the western end of Lake Erie, gives it great commercial advantages, for it is at the head of the direct lake route east ward. The distance by lake to Chicago is 691 miles, while it is but 234 miles by rail. Hence there is an enormous traffic between the Eastern cities and the region lying southwestward, of which Toledo is the distributing point. This natural advantage is supplemented by the rail way system, the city being the centre of 16 trunk lines, making direct communication to the At lantic on the east and the Pacific on the west, with direct lines north and south. These•trunk lines, including their branches, give a grand total of 23, making Toledo second only to Chicago in the number of railroads; 393 trains and 572 interurbans arrive and depart every 24 hours. Many of the trunk roads reaching the city have dock facilities, with regular steamer connections• to all important lake ports. The location of Toledo makes it the most con venient shipping point .for a large portion of the ((winter-wheat belt,D and it is one of the most important primary grain markets of the United States, after Chicago. It has 12 grain elevators, with a storage capacity of 8,500,000 bushels. Toledo is the leading clover-seed mar ket of the world and its quotations govern the prices of clover-seed for the United States. In 1918 Toledo received over 20,000,000 bushels of wheat, corn, rye, oats and barley. Toledo is one of the largest shipping ports for soft coal in the world. This comes by rail from the mines of West Virginia, southern and eastern Ohio and Pennsylvania, and is transported by water to all ports on the upper lakes. The Ohio
Central, Hocking Valley, Pennsylvania and Bal timore and Ohio railroads have immense docks on the river front, with steam apparatus by which a carload of coal at a time is conveyed into the hold of a vessel. Similar appliances are used for the rapid unloading of iron ore coming from the Lake Superior mines, which is shipped by the same roads to the iron furnaces in south ern Ohio, to mix with the native ores, thus producing a superior quality of iron and steel.
There is also a very large trade done in lumber, salt, etc., Toledo being the largest distributing point on the lakes for coal, ore and lumber. More than 50 per cent of all the coal transported on the Great Lakes in 1918 was loaded in Toledo.
The harbor of Toledo lies entirely within the Maumee River, giving full protection to shipping. The Maumee is really a wide and deep estuary of Lake Erie, to the foot of the historic °Rapids of the Maumee,' just above Perrysburg, the site of Fort Meigs, famed for Harrison's defense in 1813. Above this the river passes for some 15 miles over outcrops of limestone. At the northern city line the river opens into Maumee Bay, which is three miles north and south by six miles east and west. Through the bay the United States government has dredged a straight channel, 400 feet wide by 21 feet deep and eight miles long from the mouth of the river. The harbor proper em braces the wide channel of the river, which is 700 to 1,400 feet wide between the harbor lines established by the government. The channel of the stream has been improved by the govern ment to the same depth and width as the straight channel. The cost of this channel through the bay, and the corresponding river improvements, has been over $2,000,000. The wharfage space covers both banks of the river the entire length of the city, 18 miles in all, besides several miles on Swan Creek, a deep tributary which enters the river in the middle of the business section. Besides these there is unlimited wharf capacity along the shores of the bay, now being utilized.