TOMSK, Asia, in western Siberia, (1) capital of the government of its own name, on the Tom (q.v.). It is the seat of a governor and of a bishop and of the educational district of West Siberia. It has 20 Russian churches, monastery, convent, synagogue, mosque, uni versity with three faculties and 900 students, technological institute, theological seminary and various other schools for both sexes; also vari ous scientific societies, Russian musical society, theatre, library, halting station for deported Russians, banks, harbor, etc. The industrial works comprise tanneries, distilleries, wagon factories, etc. There is a brisk transit trade with Siberia. It lies on a branch of the Siberian Railroad. Tomsk dates from 1604. Pop. about 117,000. (2) The government has an area of about 330,000 square miles and is in the south and southeast mountainous, and embraces the Altai system. The Obi and its tributaries are the chief streams. There are vast swamps in the flat districts. The climate is very cold and unhealthful. Storms and earthquakes occur often. Pop. about 4,000,000.
TON, a measure of weight and capacity, equivalent to 20 hundred-weight. As the his torical "hundred-weight" of Great Britain and the United States contains 112 pounds, the ton is reckoned as 2,240 pounds. This is known as a "long" ton. In some of the States legislation has made the ton consist of 2,000 pounds, being 20 hundred-weight of 100 pounds each. This is known as a "short" ton. United States laws make the ton equal to 2,240 pounds when not otherwise specified. A metric ton is 1,000 kilo grams, or 2,204.6 pounds avoirdupois. A ton of earth is the equivalent of 21 cubic feet. As a measure of capacity, of a vessel or a car, a ton is 40 cubic feet; this is an "actual" ton. The "register" ton contains 100 cubic feet. See TONNAGE.
Applied to liquid measure the word, in the form tun, was in common use with the old Eng lish wine dealers. A tun of beer contained 216 gallons, of 282 cubic inches each, while a ton of wine contained 252 gallons of 231 cubic inches each.