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Tonking Tonkin

french, anam and river

TONKIN, TONKING, or TONGKING, French Indo-China, a territory under French protection, bounded on the north by China, on the east by the Gulf of Tonkin, on the south by Anam and on the west by Laos.

Area, 46,400 square miles. It is divided into 14 provinces and includes about 8,000 villages. It consists of two mountainous regions surround ing on three sides the large alluvial plain and delta region of the Song-koi (Red River), also an intermediate region of plateaaix. The Song koi flows through the centre of the territory from northwest to southeast and opens a navi gable waterway extending in the rainy season as far as Lao-kay. The Song-bo (Black River) rises in Yunnan and joins the Song-koi, the largest river in the Mekong, forming a large portion of the western boundary. The principal mineral resources are deposits of coal, iron, copper and gold. The climate is hot and humid and the allqvial plain of Tonkin produces some of the best rice in the world. Sugar, cotton, tea, Indian corn and opium are also cultivated to a great extent, and on the higher ground there are coffee plantations. The manufacturers include silk, paper, cotton textiles, indigo and oils. Commerce has rapidly increased, the ex

ports, chiefly rice, maize, sugar cane, silk, cot ton, coffee, tobacco and animal products amounting to about $10 000,000 annually. The imports in 1915 totaled $8,000,000, being largely tools, machinery and beverages. The principal port is Hai-fong which has steamship connec tion with Hongkong, Yokohama and Cochin China. Railroads run from Hanoi to Hai-fong and Nam-dinh to Lungchow and to Yunnanfu and to the Chinese frontier. There are ocean cables connecting with Hongkong and Hue. Hanoi is the capital, and, since 1902, also the capital of the whole of French and Indo-China. Tonkin was 'an independent state until 1802, when it became a province of Anam. The lat ter is still its nominal position, although the Anamite vice-royalty was sut3erseded in 1897 by a French residency, and the French protec torate is more direct here than in Anam proper. The provinces are governed by a resident and vice-resident, and each is subdivided into four military territories under commandants. Pop. estimated in 1911 as 6,119,720, with 33,000 Chi nese and 6,132 Europeans.