TOPEKA, Kan., city and county-seat of Shawnee County, capital of the State and the third largest city in the State, on both banks of the Kansas River, on the Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe, the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific, the Union Pacific and the Missouri Pacific, 67 miles west of Kansas City. The city is well laid out with broad streets crossing at right angles and beautifully shaded. Topeka was settled by people from the °Free State' in 1854; an anti-slave constitution was adopted here in 1856 known as the aTopelca Constitu tion° and the Topeka government was estab lished by national authority. It was incorpo rated as a city in 1857 and selected as the State capital in 1861. The principal industries are the railroad shops of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, printing plants, six flouring mills having a capacity of 5,000 barrels per day, creameries, packing-houses, foundries, machine shops, boiler works, preserving works, silo factories, engine works and planing mills. According to the United States census of man ufactures of 1914 Topeka had 159 manufac turing establishments with a combined capital of $14,186,000, employing 5,721 persons, paying $3,691,000 in wages and manufacturing a prod uct valued at $20,000,000. Topeka has 10 banks, three of which are national banks and three building and loan associations with assets of $9,000,000. Topeka is an important jobbing centre, there being four wholesale groceries, six wholesale commission houses, wholesale hardware, paper, drugs, etc. It is one of the chief railroad centres between the Missouri River and the Pacific Coast. The State capi tol, a handsome stone edifice, is the most im portant building of the city. The State Memo rial building, erected to the memory of the veterans of the Civil War at a cost of $550,000, is the most handsome structure in the city. The government building and the court house are also creditable buildings. Topeka has a
municipally owned city building with audi torium annex with seating capacity for 5,000 people. Just west of the city, two miles, is the State Hospital for the Insane; the State Re form School is located just north of the city about three miles. The Colored Industrial In stitute is a coeducational institution for col ored boys and girls located just east of the city. Orphans Home — two Crittenden Homes, one each for the unfortunate white and colored girls, the Provident Association Building, Ingleside Home for Old Ladies, a Methodist Home for the Aged are among the most notable of its charitable institutions. The Santa Fe Railroad maintains its own private hospital and the public hospitals are Saint Francis, Christ's Hospital and Stormont Hospital. The city has a free public library, a well-organized public school system, including a high school established in 1874; an excellent manual train ing school is also maintained. It is the seat of Washburn College, a coeducational institu tion for men and women, and the College of the Sisters of Bethany and three business col leges. Topeka has the commission form of government, having a mayor and four com missioners; a well-equipped fire department and an excellent police department. The city owns its own electric light and water plant. The cost of city government as reported by the United States government reports for the year 1915 shows $20.71 per capita as spent in Topeka for the maintenance of city government. The physical valuation of Topeka is about $56,000. 000. The area of the city is 16 square miles. Topeka has over two miles of ornamental lighting system, has 240 acres of city-ownei parks and play grounds. Pop. 52,250.