TORONTO, Canada, a city and lalceport. the capital of the province of Ontario, situated on the circular Toronto Bay between the mouths of the Don and Humber rivers, on the north west coast of Lake Ontario, 313 miles west southwesr of Montreal and 60 miles in a direct line northwest of Buffalo, United States. It is the seat of the provincial government, of the higher law courts, of an important university and of the Department of Education of the province; it is also the cathedral city of a Roman Catholic and of an Anglican diocese. In commercial importance it is the second city in the Dominion, and, after Montreal, the chief tailway centre. The Grand Trunk, the Cana dian Pacific, and many branch lines connect it with the principal cities of Canada and of the northern United States, and it is the head quarters of the Canadian Northern and the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario railways. The fine harbor, five miles long and one and a half wide, is formed by a long, low. sandy island, protected by imposing breakwaters; this island is, in summer, a favorite bathing and boating resort. A great scheme of development, which includes the deepening and extenston of the harbor, land reclamation, boulevard con struction and the creation of industrial sites is in progress. The city rises gradually from the water's edge to a height of 220 feet; it extends from east to west for about 10 miles along the lake shore and from north to south from three to seven miles. and covers an area of about 32 square miles, with streets crossing each other at right angles. An electric street railway sys tem has about 144 miles of tracks. The archi tecture, especially of the numerous public build ings, is tasteful and imposing, and there are many fine shops and residences. Brick of a pleasing light color, or red, is the chief building material. Of the public buildings, the mosf striking group is that connected with the Uni versity of Toronto. The main building or University College, a fine Norman structure in gray stone, with a massive tower and richly sculptured doorway, was rebuilt after partial destruction by fire in 1890; the Library, the new Medical Building, the Biological Department, the School of Practical Science, with its hand some new engineering building in the Renais sance style, and a number of other large struc tures, unite with this to make up an imposing group, not wholly harmonious, but in a spacious setting of park land. Adjacent are the "Neo Greek" Parliament buildings, containing the government offices, and a handsome and well decorated legislative hall. The magnificent city hall and courthouse is, next to the univer sity, the most striking of Toronto's buildings. Others worthy of mention are Osgoode Hall, the seat of the provincial law courts; the Nor mal School buildings, offices of the Department of Education; Central Technical 'School ; Trin ity College, in connection with the Church of England, an ornate building, in the late Gothic style; the custom house, the post office, the exhi bition buildings, where an important annual exhibition is held, and the lunatic asylum, in about 40 acres of ground. A new Union rail way station to cost $5,000,000 is in course of construction. The churches most worthy of notice are the Roman Catholic and Anglican cathedrals, both in the pointed style; the latter is an excellent specimen of Early English. There are numerous theatres and many public halls, the chief being the Massey Music Hall, which will hold 4,000 or 5,000 people. Toronto has 1,329 acres of park, the chief being Queen's Park, adjoining the university, and the extensive High Park, at the west of the city. It is a great educational centre. The university (see following article) is one of the best equipped in America. Educational institutions connected with it are Trinity College (already men tioned) ; Victoria College (Methodist, arts and divinity) ; Knox College (Presbyterian, theo logical) ; Wycliffe College (Anglican theolog ical) ; Saint Michael's College (Roman Catho lic), and colleges for instruction in music, den tistry, pharmacy and veterinary science. Its
agricultural college is situated not at Toronto but at Guelph, Ontario. McMaster University is an independent Baptist institution, teaching arts and divinity. Upper Canada College, in spa cious grounds, is a residential school for boys, as is also Saint Andrew's College, the site of which was acquired in 1917 for a military hos pital. Havergal College is a similar type of school for girls, and besides it are Bishop Strachan's School, Saint Margaret's College, etc. The Toronto Conservatory of Music has a very large number of pupils. The Observa tory, at which the weather reports for the Do minion are made up, is in the university grounds. Toronto has suffered from destruc tive conflagrations, notably in 1849, in 1890 and in April 1904, when more than 100 buildings in the wholesale business section were burned down, some 5,000 persons were thrown out of work, and about $11,000,000 worth of property was destroyed. The industries of Toronto in clude a great agricultural implement factory, iron foundries, shipbuilding, rolling stock, dis tilling and brewing, pork-packing, the manu facture of soap, tanning, aeroplanes, etc. The city possesses a well-equipped system of public libraries, with a fine reference library centrally located, in which the John Ross Robertson his torical and ornithological collections are housed. Shipping on the lakes is laid up in winter, but during the navigable season several lines of steamers connect with the principal ports on the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence. The lake commerce in lumber, grain, coal, cattle and fruit is large. Toronto's bank clearings in 1917 were $3,004,785,565; customs revenue, $35,732, 400. The city has over 1,700 manufacturing es tablishments, employing 80,000 hands.
The name Toronto is derived from the Huron word, signifying "place of meeting." In 1749, when the French were establishing a chain of forts or posts through all the West and down the Mississippi Valley, Fort Rouille was founded, on a site even then often called Fort Toronto. In 1756 this fort, on the west side of the present city, was destroyed to prevent its falling into the hands of the English. In 1793 Governor Simcoe finding Niagara or Newark, which lay almost under the guns of an Amer ican fort, too close to the frontier for the seat of governmentemoved the capital to the other O side of Lake Ontario and established his head quarters in a tent, on a site in the eastern part of the present city. In 1813 Toronto, called York by Governor Simcoe, was captured and partially burned and looted, twice in the same year, by the American army and navy. In the first capture the American General Pike, the discoverer of Pike's Peak, together with many soldiers, was killed by an explosion. In 1834 Toronto was incorporated as a city with its present name. In 1837 it was the chief scene of a brief and ineffectual rebellion under Wil liam Lyon Mackenzie (q.v.). At that time and often since Toronto has shown itself to be fer vently British in sentiment. Its later history has been purely civic, without other interest than that attaching to prosperous growth. A pleasant society and an attractive situation make it a favorite place of residence. Population has increased rapidly. In 1793, when Governor Simcoe landed, there were only a few families. In 1834 the population was less than 10,000. In 1861 it had increased to 44,821, in 1871 to 56, 092 and in 1881 to 86.415. In 1891, including some annexed suburbs it amounted to 181,220, and in 1911 to 376,240. Police census (1917), 535,271.
Consult Scadding, 'Toronto of Old' ; Scad ding and Dent, 'Toronto, Past and Present' ; Adam, 'Toronto, Old and ; and 'The Toronto