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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 26

Toronto
Toronto, Canada, A City And Lalceport. The Capital Of The Province Of Ontario, Situated On The Circular Toronto Bay Between The Mouths Of The Don And Humber Rivers, On The North West Coast Of Lake Ontario, 313 Miles West Southwesr Of Montreal And 60 Miles In A Direct Line Northwest ...

Toronto_2
Toronto, University Of, Situated At Toronto, Canada, The Head Of The Educational System Of The Province Of Ontario. The First Step Toward The Establishment Of The Univer Sity Was Taken In 1797 When The Council And Assembly Of Upper Canada Petitioned The King For An Appropriation Of Crown Lands For ...

Torpedo Boats
Torpedo Boats. The Torpedo Boat First Made Its Appearance As An Adjunct To The Fleet In 1886. At That Time Its Displacement Was Less Than 100 Tons, And Its Speed About 20 Knots An Hour. From That Time On It Gradually Increased In Size And Speed Until In 18% Its ...

Torpedoes
' Torpedoes. Torpedoes Or Explosives Moving Through The Water To The Object At Tacked, As Distinguished From The Mine Or Stationary Explosive, First Took The Form Of What Was In Reality A Towed Mine. The Harvey, Menzing And The Various French Towing Torpedoes Were Weapons Of This Kind. The Torpedo ...

Torrens System
Torrens System, A System Of Title Registration Devised By Sir Robert Torrens, And First Successfully Used In Australia. Its Object Is To Make The Transfer Of Landed Prop Erty As Simple And As Safe As That Of Any Other Property And To Do Away With The Necessity Of Repeated Title ...

Torrents Of Spring
Torrents Of Spring ('vishniya Voclui)), By Ivan Sergeyevitch Turgenief, Is The Tragicomedy Of A Man Of Weak Will Who Succumbs To A Passionate Impulse, Yields To The Seductions Of The Typical °vampire° Woman And Throws Away The Happiness Of His Whole Life. °weak Men,° Says The Author, "never Bring Things ...

Torrey
Torrey, Charles Turner, American Anti-slavery Reformer: B. Scituate, Mass., 21 Nov. 1813; D. Baltimore, Md., 9 May 1846. He Was Graduated At Yale In 1830, Entered The Con Gregational Ministry, And Held Pastorates At Princeton, N. J., And Salem, Mass. Having Re Moved To Maryland To Promote The Cattse Of ...

Torrey_2
Torrey, Reuben Archer, American Evangelist: B. Hoboken, N. J., 28 Jan. 1856. He Was Educated At Yale College And At Leipzig And Erlangen In Germany He Was Ordained As A Congregational Minister In 1878, Was Super Intendent Minneapolis City Mission Society And Became Associated With Dwight L. Moody In 1889 ...

Torsion Balance
Torsion Balance, An Instrument In Which Small Forces Are Measured By Noting The Torsion That They Can Produce In A Fine Wire Or A Delicate Fibre Of Some Other Material. The Invention Of The Instrument Is Usually Ascribed To Coulomb (1736-1806), Who Employed It In His Extensive Researches On Electricity. ...

Tortoise Plant
Tortoise Plant, A Loft Climber (testudinaria Elephantipes) Of Southern Africa, Resembling A Yam, And Belonging To The Same Family. It Has Slender Twining Stems, Alternate, Netted-veined Leaves, Small Dicecious Bell-shaped Yellowish Flowers In Axillary Racemes, And Triple-winged Capsules. It Is, However, Char Acterized By Its Globular Rootstock, Sometimes Four Feet ...

Torture
Torture, As A Means Of Judicial Punish Ment, Descended To The Countries Of Modern Europe From The Greeks And Romans Since It Appears Not To Have Been Practised By The Hindus, The Hebrews Or The Egyptians. Tor Ture Was Judicialy Inflicted Either To Extort Con Fession, Purge Sin, Or Aggravate ...

Totem
Totem, A Word Which Appears To Have Been Applied Originally To The Animal Or Other Thing Held Sacred By Certain American Indians As The Sign Or Symbol Of The Tribe Or Of An In Dividual Indian. The Superstition Is Not Con Fined To American Indians And Has Its Counter Part ...

Tottels Miscellany
Tottel's Miscellany. The Worlc Which Commonly Goes By This Name Was Pub Lished Under The Title (songes And Sonettes, Written By The Ryght Honorable Lorde Henry Haward [i.e., Howard] Late Earle Of Surrey, And Other,' By The Stationer Richard Tottel. On 5 June 1557. Its Popularity Was Such That A ...

Toucan
Toucan, Too-kan' Or Too'kan, A Family (rhamphastidcr) Of Coccygomorphous Birds Somewhat Resembling The Hornbills, And Distin Guished By The Great Development Of The Bill, Which Is Curved Superiorly And Bears A Promi Nent Keel, With Cutting Edges Frequently Toothed. The Outer Walls Of The Bill Are Extremely Thin, Its Interior ...

Toulon
Toulon, Too-lon, France, A Fortified Sea Port Town And Naval Arsenal, In The Department Of The Var, On The Meriterranean, 42 Miles Southeast Of Marseilles. The Port Is Separated From The Roadstead By Bomb-proof Moles And Comprises Two Parts: One, Including The Mer Chant Shipping; The Other, The Dockyard, Slip, ...

Toulouse
Toulouse, Too-looz, France, Capital Of The Department Of Haute-garonne, 140 Miles Southeast Of Bordeaux, On The Garonne. It Is The Centre Of Railway Traffic And River And Canal Freight In Southern France. A Fine Bridge Connects The Town With The Village Of Saint Cy Prien. It Is A Quaint Old ...

Tourgee
Tourgee, Albion Winegar, American Jurist And Author: B. Williamsfield, Ashtabula County, Ohio, 2 May 1838; D. Bor Deaux, France, 21 May 1905. He Was Gradu Ated At The University Of Rochester (n. Y.), Enlisted May 1861 As A Private In The 27th New York Volunteers, Was Wounded At The First ...

Tourmaline
Tourmaline, A Common And Wisely Dis Tributed Mineral, So Called From An East Indian Name, And Known To Earlier Writers As Schod. It Is A Very Complex Aluminum Boro-silicate, With Several Marked Varieties Depending On The Presence And Proportions Of Other Metallic Oxides. The Precise Constitution Of Tourmaline Has Been ...

Tournament
Tournament, A Friendly Contest At Arms Among Warriors Of Noble Birth During The Middle Ages. The Use Of The Term Was Not Fixed And It Denotes The Gathering Of The Nobles And Knights, The Contests And The Fetes Or Carousals Which Followed. A Tournament Often Lasted Several Days, A Week ...

Tourniquet
Tourniquet, A Contrivance For Com Pressing A Blood-vessel To Stop The Flow Of Blood In Amputations And In Dangerous Hemorrhage From Wounds And To Control The Circulation Through An Aneurism. It Is •believed To Have Been First Used In France By Morel (1674). As Used By This Surgeon In Amputations ...

Tours
Tours, France, Capital Of The Department Of Indre-et-loire, On The Left Bank Of The Loire, At The Confluence Of The Cher, 130 Miles South West Of Paris. The Principal Entrance To The City Is By A Magnificent Bridge Across The Loire, 1,423 Feet Long. The Banks Of The River Are ...

Toussaint
Toussaint, Frangois Domin Ique, Called L'ouverture, Loo-ver-tiir, Haitian Soldier And Liberator: B. 1743; D. Fort De Joux, Near Besancon, France, 27 April 1803. He Was A Full-blooded'negro And Was Born A Slave. When The Insurrection Of The Blacks Broke Out In 1791 Toussaint Took Service In Their Army, But Not ...

Tower
Tower, In Architecture, A Structure More Or Less Lofty, Of Varied Form Or Plan, Whether Standing Alone Or Forming A Part Of A Church, Castle Or Other Building, But Essentially High As Regards Its Surroundings. In Ancient Times Towers Were Erected As Memorials To The Dead, For Purposes Of Defense ...

Town And Town Meetings
Town And Town Meetings. In Its Broadest Meaning The Word Town Denotes Simply A Collection Of Houses Without Regard To The Size Of The Collection And Without Regard To The Form Of Its Political Organization. In This Sense A Hamlet Without Any Governmental Powers At All Of Its Own May ...

Townshend
Townshend, Charles, English States Man: B. 29 Aug. 1725; D. London, 4 Sept. 1767. He Was Grandson Of The 2d Viscount Town Shend, Was Educated At Leyden (probably Also At Oxford) And Entered Parliament In 1747. The Next Year He Received A Minor Office And In 1754 Became Lord Of ...

Toxicology
Toxicology, The Study Of Poisons. The Word Poison Is Difficult To Define, Since Many Substances Which In Minute Amounts Exercise No Harmful Action On The Body May In Large Quantities Produce Disastrous Effects. Then Again, Some Substances Which Are Harmless When Taken Into The Stomach, As Water, For In Stance, ...

Toxins And Antitoxins
Toxins And Antitoxins. Mitchell And Reichart (at The University Of Pennsyl Vania) First Demonstrated That The Poisonous Constituents Of Snake Venom Are Proteins, Or Closely Related Bodies. This Statement Did Not Meet With Favor In Europe, Especially In Ger Many, At The Time, But Further Studies Have Confirmed It And ...

Toys
Toys, American, Manufacture Of. To Teh The Story Of The Art Of Toy-making From Its Earliest Days It Would Be Necessary To Follow The Industry Back Through Many Centuries, For The Archeologists, In Delving Among The Tombs Of Ancient Greece And Egypt, Have Made The Sur Prising Discovery That Children ...

Tra Jan
Tra Jan, Tra'jan (marcus Ulpius Traja Nus), Roman Emperor: B. Italica (near Se- Ville), In The .spanish Province Of Bmtica, 53 A.d. ; D. Se!inns, Cilicia, 117. He Was The Son Of Trajanus, A Roman Commander Under Ves Pasian. He Accompanied His Father In A Cam Paign Against The Parthians ...

Trachea
Trachea, Tra-ke'a Or Tra'ke-a, Or Wind Pipe, The Principal Air-passage Of The Body; A Tube Extending From The Larynx To A Point Opposite The' Third Dorsal Vertebra, Where The Tube Divides Into Two Chief Divisions Or Bronchi, One Of Which Supplies Each Lung With The Air Necessary For Respiration Or ...

Tract Societies
Tract Societies. The Circulation Of Religious Appeals In Writing Preceded The Inven Tion Of Printing And Was Used By Wyclif And Other Reformers At Times And Places When And Where Open Preaching Might Have Been Too Perilous. The Printing-press Made It Possible To Multiply Such Appeals And It Was Largely ...

Tractarianism
Tractarianism, The Name Usually Given To A System Of Religious Opinion And Prac Tice Promulgated Within The Church Of England In A Series Of Papers Published Under The Title Of 'tracts For The Times.> Between September 1833 And March 1841. The Immediate Object Of The Writers Seems To Have Been ...

Traction
Traction, Electric. The History Of The Development Of Electric Traction Follows Closely That Of Other Great Technical Developments— Starting With Experiments On A Small Scale, Hav Ing No Practical Outcome, Followed By Experi Ments On A Larger Scale, Showing The Physical Possibility Of The System, And Finally Using The Experience ...

Traction Engine
Traction Engine, An Engine Designed For Drawing Loads On Ordinary Roads Or Across Country, And Thus Distinguished From The Locomo Tive Which Hauls Loads Over Steel Or Iron Rails. The Traction Engine Is Designed To Withstand Severe Jolts And To Climb Gradients Of At Least 1 In 10 And On ...

Tractor
Tractor, A Machine That Draws A Load, Especially A Power-engine Mounted On Wheels For Traveling On Roads Or Rough Ground And Hauling Wagons, Trailers, Plows, Cultivators Or The Like; A Traction-engine. The Locomotive (q.v.) Was The First Common Form Of Tractor, But Does Not Bear The Name, And By Common ...

Trade Associations
Trade Associations, Business Or Ganizations Composed Of The Individuals, Firms And Corporations Engaged In A Trade Or Industry, Formed And Operated To Deal With Those Things In Which The Membership Have A Community Of Interest, As Wage Scales, Uniform Rules And Measures, Guarding Of Legislative Interests, Maintaining Prices, Exchanging Of ...

Trade Dollar
Trade Dollar, A Former Coin Of The United States, Containing 378 Troy Grains Of Sil Ver And 42 Troy Grains Of Alloy. Trade Dollars, Issued Under Act Of Congress 12 Feb. 1873, Were Legal Tender To The Amount Of $5. Those Issued Under The Act 22 July 1876 Possessed No ...

Trade Unions
Trade Unions, General Federation Of, A Labor Organization Of Great Britain, Aiming To Unite All The British Trade Unions For Mutual Assistance And The Advancement Of The Interests Of Labor. It Admits Any Trade Union To Mem Bership, But No Branches Or Individuals. It Was Organized In 1899 At A ...

Trade And Technical Press
Trade And Technical Press, American. The Principal Function Of The Trade And Technical Publication Is The Advancement Of The Commercial, Industrial, •professional, Scien Tific Or Other Interest, Which They Represent, By Keeping The Reader Informed As To The Prevail Ing Conditions Of His Trade Throughout The Country, And Even The ...

Tradition
Tradition, The Body Of Oral Informa Tion, Opinion, Inexact Records, Statements And Evidence Of Things Long Past Communicated From Older Generations To The Present. That Evidence Of Ancient Things Which Is Not Com Mitted To Writing And Vouched For By Com Petent Authority. As Applied To Profane History It Signifies ...

Train
Train, George Francis, American Finan Cier And Eccentric Author: B. Boston, 24 March 1829; D. New York, 18 Jan. 1904. In 1850 He Was Put In Charge Of The Liverpool Branch Of An American Business House And Three Years Later Was Admitted To Partnership. Another Branch Was Established In Melbourne, ...

Ture
Ture, One Of The Members Of The Semitic Family Of Languages. It Is A Variation Or Dia Lect Of The Aramaic Tongue, Which Covered The Districts Of Mesopotamia, Northern Syria, Damascus And Eastern Palestine Southward To Arabia Petrwa. The Language Of Syria, Es Pecially In Its Earlier Form, Differs Very ...

Undervizar
Undervizar Value Shirts. Pants, Vests, Etc ;13,615,000 Fancy Hosiery (including Cardigans, Sweaters, Etc.) 4,525,000 Hose, Half Hose, Etc 22,040,000 Other Hosiery 860,000 Gloves (cotton, Wool, Silk, Etc.) 2,150,000 Entire Quantity Of Hose Made In 1907 , 72,045,000 England's Exports Were: 1916 1917 Cotton Piece Goods $443,939,450 $564.052,485 Other Cottons 74,175,115 ...

United States
United States. The United States Had Not Many Ex Amples Of The All-day Trade School Until Re Cent Years, For Her Problems Of National Development Had Taken Her Full Time. The Beginnings Were Usually Under Private Control — Illustrations Being The New York Trade School For Boys And The Manhattan ...

Value Of Product 1890
Value Of Product. 1890 1900 1905 Frill River $24,925.000 $29.286,000 $32,538,000 New Bedford 8,185.000 16,748,000 22,412,000 Idoemffl 19,789,000 17.046,000 19,384,000 Manchester— 10,957,000 11,723,000 14,366,000 Pawtucket 3,955,000 5,635,000 10,099,000 Lawrence 6,047.000 8,151,000 5,745.000 Taunton 2,748,000 4,593,000 6,141,000 New England_ $181,112,000 $191.690,000 $224,072.000 The Number Of Establishments In The South Ern States ...

White Termites
Termites, White Ants? Or Duck Ants, A Family Of Insects Composing The Order Lsoptera, Which Have A Superficial Resemblance To Ants, Though Far Removed From Them In Structure, Being Allied To The Mayflies. They Also Resemble Ants In Being Social Insects, Living In Colonies And Building %este) Or %ills)" They ...

Wireless Telephony
Telephony, Wireless. The Vertical Wire Or Aerial.— Marconi's First Experiments In Wireless Telegraphy Were Made With A Vertical Wire 20 Feet High At The Sending And Receiving Stations. With This Height Of Wire He Transmitted Signals One Mile. With Wires 40 Feet High Signals Were Transmitted Four Miles And With ...

Wood Working Tools
Wood-working Tools. The Small Tools Used In Wood-working Are Those Mainly Employed In Carpentry Work And Consist Of The Various Forms Of "guiding" Tools, "holdings" Tools, "rasping" Tools, "edge" Tools Or °cutting° Tools, "boring" Tools, "striking" Tools And "chopping" Tools. The Machine Tools Include The Various Forms Of Lathes, Borers, ...