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TORONTO, University of, situated at Toronto, Canada, the head of the educational system of the province of Ontario. The first step toward the establishment of the univer sity was taken in 1797 when the council and assembly of Upper Canada petitioned the king for an appropriation of Crown lands for the purposes of education, and the establishing of a university. The appropriation was made, but nothing further was done toward the found ing of the university until 1827, when it was chartered under the name of the University of King's College; the organization of the university was further delayed, largely owing to objections to the sectarian character of its charter, which was amended in 1837; and it was not till 1843 that it was opened to stu dents. In 1849 the name was changed to the University of Toronto; in 1853 the university was further transformed by the organization of two corporations, known as the University of Toronto and the University College; to the latter was assigned the teaching in arts and the entire control of its students. In 1887 a further organization of the whole university took place. Under what is known as the "Federation Act" the university became a teach ing body once more, with faculties of arts, medicine, applied science and engineering, to which have been added since, faculties of educa tion, forestry, household science and music. In the faculty of arts the subjects were divided as between the University of Toronto and Uni versity College, which may be termed the State Arts College, the complement of the faculty of arts of the university. In this reorganization of the faculty of arts there are now Victoria College, representing the Methodist Church of Canada; Trinity College, representing the Church of England; Saint Michael's College, representing the Roman Catholic Church — so that there are four arts colleges giving instruc tion in the same arts subjects, but sending their students to the university for instruction in other subjects, among which are mathematics, sciences, philosophy, political science, history.

The institutions which have close relations with the university are either federated or affil iated. Among the federated institutions, out side the arts colleges, are Knox College and Wycliffe College, while among the affiliated colleges are the Ontario Agricultural College, the Royal College of Dental Surgeons, the On tario College of Pharmacy and the Ontario Veterinary College. These federated and affil iated colleges are represented on the senate of the university, which has charge of the edu cational policy. Each faculty has its own council and has charge of the discipline and con trol of its students, while the caput is made up of the chief executive officers of the uni versity, together with the heads of the feder ated colleges.

The university receives a very substantial grant annually from the government of the province of Ontario and is affiliated with the leading universities of Great Britain and Ire land, as well as with the General Medical Coun cil of Great Britain.

The degrees offered by the university include arts, medicine, applied science and engineering, pedagogy, forestry and music, under the regular faculties, while through the affiliated institu tions degrees are given in law, dentistry, agri culture, pharmacy, with diplomas in public health and physical training. Extension and summer session work are carried on in the faculty of arts. The university•is coeducational and had during the session 1918-19 an attend ance of approximately 3,000 which is likely to develop to a greater attendance than in pre war days, when the enrolment exceeded 4,000.

The important buildings are the main build ing, convocation hall, the library, household science, the various laboratories and within Toronto the buildings of Victoria College, Trinity College and Saint Michael's College.

Provision is made for the undergraduate activities of the men in Hart House, the gift of the Massey Estate. There are residences for men students of the university and for both men and women in University College, Victoria, Trinity and Saint Michael's colleges.