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Torrey

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TORREY, Charles Turner, American anti-slavery reformer: b. Scituate, Mass., 21 Nov. 1813; d. Baltimore, Md., 9 May 1846. He was graduated at Yale in 1830, entered the Con gregational ministry, and held pastorates at Princeton, N. J., and Salem, Mass. Having re moved to Maryland to promote the cattse of anti-slavery, he became an active agent of the Underground Railroad (q.v.), and was arrested and imprisoned in 1843 for his report of a slaveholders' convention held in Baltimore. The following year he was again arrested, and being convicted of aiding in the escape of run away slaves, he was sentenced to a long term in the penitentiary. The harsh treatment he received while undergoing his sentence brought on consumption from which he died, and his remains were taken to Boston where he was honored by a public funeral. He was regarded as a martyr in the cause of abolition, and °Tor rey's blood crieth out° became an anti-slavery watchword. He wrote (A Memoir of William R. Saxton' (1838), and while in prison pro duced a volume of sketches of Massachusetts life, (Stone, or the Pilgrim's Faith Revived' (1846). Consult Lovejoy, (Memoir of the Martyr Torrey) (1847).

TORFtEY, John, American botanist: b. New York, 15 Aug. 1796; d. there, 10 March 1873. He received his first instruction in botany, mineralogy and chemistry from Amos Eaton, and was graduated at the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1818. His leisure from medical practice he devoted to scientific pursuits, particularly to botany, and in 11324 he abandoned medicine and became professor of chemistry, mineralogy and geology at West Point. From 1827 to 1855 he was professor of chemistry and botany at the College of Physi cians and Surgeons, serving simultaneously at Princeton. From 1853 until his death he was

chief assayer in the 'United States Assay Office, New York. He participated in the councils of Columbia College as trustee, and in 1860 pre sented to that institution his extensive her barium and botanical library. In .his special field of scientific research his publications were numerous. One of his earliest was a (Cata logue of Plants Growing Spontaneously Within Thirty Miles of the City of New York) (1819), which he prepared for the New York Lyceum of Natural History (now the New York Acad emy of Science), of which he was a founder and for many years president In 1843, as botanist of the Geological Survey of New York, he published an elaborate work.on the flora of that State. Meantime he had issued in connec tion with Asa Gray (q.v.), parts of a work on (The Flora of North America' ; but this was also discontinued after the completion of the order Composite. From 1845 onward he pub lished memoirs and reports on the botanical specimens brought back by expeditions to vari ous parts of the West and South by Capt. John C. Fremont and others, among them being re ports on the botany of the expeditions for as certaining the most practicable route for a Pacific railroad and making the Mexican boundary survey. He was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1855, and was named by Congress in 1863 one of the original members of the Na tional Academy of Sciences.