TOULOUSE, too-looz, France, capital of the department of Haute-Garonne, 140 miles southeast of Bordeaux, on the Garonne. It is the centre of railway traffic and river and canal freight in southern France. A fine bridge connects the town with the village of Saint Cy prien. It is a quaint old town, but very enter prising. The most remarkable buildings are the cathedral, church of Saint Sernin, Hotel de-Ville, museum and Palais-de-Justice. The Musee contains an almost unparalleled collec tion of objects darts from the Gallo-Roman to the Renaissance period. There are several fine academies of art, science and literature (one claiming its origin to have been in games of the troubadours of 1323, namely, Societe des Jeux Floraux) ; professional and technical schools, a large public library of 225,000 vol umes, an observatory and botanical garden. Toulouse is one of the larger cities of France, designated as the seat of a State university, which includes faculties of law, medicine, sci ence, letters, etc. It has a library of over 150.000 volumes and nearly 5,000 students. There is also a large Catholic institution with theo logical, literary and scientific instruction. The
old name of the city was Tolosa, dating back before the Christian era. It was sacked by Q. S. Cepio 106 a.c., and rebuilt and regarded as an important city in the 4th century. The Visigoths, under King Wallia, made it their capital in 419. It was taken by Clovis in 507, and was Charibert's capital in 630. For many hundred years it was the foremost city of southern Gaul. The Saracens took it in 7I8. The name developed into Toulouse about 780, where Charlemagne made his young son Louis, king of Aquitaine, with his capital there. About 850, the first Count of Toulouse established himself, and these nobles governed the city and southern France for over 500 years. The tri bunal of the Inquisition was established at Toulouse. It was the scene of Hugenot mas sacres in 1562 and again in 1572. The manu factures include textiles, leather, cannon, steam-engines, tobacco, brandy, etc. In modern history, the most important event was its de feat by the English, while in ignorance of Napoleon's abdication. Pop. (1911) of com mune 149,576, the town proper being about 23,000 less.