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TOURS, France, capital of the department of Indre-et-Loire, on the left bank of the Loire, at the confluence of the Cher, 130 miles south west of Paris. The principal entrance to the city is by a magnificent bridge across the Loire, 1,423 feet long. The banks of the river are enclosed by a quay, lined with handsome houses and finely-planted promenades. Great part of the town is new and many of the streets are spacious and elegant; hut the older quarters are inferior. The principal edifice is the cathe dral. Its west front consists of three lofty flamboyant portals surmounted by a window of astonishing dimensions and flanked by two domed towers, 205 feet high. The interior, of the purest Gothic, and lighted by beautifully stained glass, is 256 feet in length and 85 feet in height. Two towers form conspicuous ob jects from every part of the town; one called the tower of Saint Martin or Horloge, from containing the principal crock; the other the tower of Charlemagne, because his queen, Luit garde, was buried below it, and both remark able as the only relics which the Revolution of 1793 have left of the vast cathedral of Saint Martin of Tours, after it had flourished for 12 centuries. The archiepiscopal palace is re garded as one of the most handsome in the kingdom. It is the seat of 2. college, has other

excellent educational institutions and a library of 175,000 volumes. The manufactures consist of silk stuffs, ribbons, cloth, serge, rugs, chemi cals and leather, besides steel and ironworks and pottery, and the trade is in corn, wine, brandy, dried fruits, wax, hemp, wool, etc. Tours early acquired considerable importance and under the Romans was known by the name of Czsarodunum. It was from the gates of Tours that Charles Martel (q.v.) drove back the Moslem invasion of Europe in 732. In modern times it became famous for its silk manufactures and had so extended as to have a population of 80,000, when the revocation of the Edict of Nantes deprived it of nearly half its inhabitants and almost all its industry and inflicted a blow on its prosperity from which it has scarcely recovered. During the Franco German War Tours was made the seat of the governmenedelegation during the siege of Paris, 12 Sept. 1870. The delegation removed to Bor deaux on 10 December. Tours surrendered to the Germans 21 Dec. 1870. Pop. 73,398.