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United States

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UNITED STATES.

The United States had not many ex amples of the all-day trade school until re cent years, for her problems of national development had taken her full time. The beginnings were usually under private control — illustrations being the New York Trade School for Boys and the Manhattan Trade School for Girls. The subjects of instruction at the for mer are the various building trades such as carpentry, bricklaying, sheet metal and cornice work, electrical work, house and fresco paint ing, plumbing, steam and hot water fitting, sign painting, plastering, blacksmithing and pnnting. It was founded in 1881 by the late Col. Richard T. Auchmuty, who originated the system of instruction. •It includes the theoretical as well as the practical branches of the trade. The courses are made as short as possible—usually about four months for the day classes, which provide trades for younger men. The night courses aim to give additional skill to those already in the trade. The students come from all over the United States, and several thousand have received the certificate and twice as many more have been enrolled. It is claimed that this school has greatly helped the building trades and also has raised the standard of in telligence and efficiency in the working class. The Baron de Hirsch Trade School, also in New York city, offers similar trade training.

The Williamson Free School of Mechanical Trades, near Philadelphia, is a different type of trade school. The course is three years in length and the school term extends throughout the year. The pupils are regularly indentured as apprentices and live at the school. Scholas tic examinations are required for admission, and there is no charge for board, clothing or instruction. The trades taught are carpenter ing, bricklaying, including range, furnace and boiler setting, and the machine trade in all of its usual details, patternmaking, steam and electrical engineering and steam fitting. Each student talces but one of the trades named, and his instruction in mechanical and freehand drawing is in the direction of his particular trade. The academic work continues through

out the three years, and special attention is given to ethical training that the pupils may be good citizens as well as good mechanics. It can accommodate but one-fifth of those desiring ad mission. There are three notable trade schools in San Francisco. The Wilmerding School of Industrial Arts trains for the building trades, the Lux School ctffers girls home-making and wage-earning courses and the Lick School of Mechanic Arts gives the metal trades. All three schools are under the same principal though financially independent. There is no charge for tuition, use of tools, instruments or materials. The courses cover four years and the aim is to send intelligent citizens as well as well-instructed workmen into the trade. Grad uate courses are also given. The schools are built on adjacent lots and the students can use the shops of either institution. They are free, and the latter school is open to both sexes. A competitive examination is held for entrance at the School of Mechanical Arts. A preliminary course of more than two years in general education and manual trainirw is followed by the selection of some trade and apprenticeship in it. The school- aims to solve a general problem of teaching various trades as an integral part of education, rather than to mect some special need of the community.

The Wentworth Institute in Boston trains for various skilled mechanical trades in both day and night classes. Like other schools of its type it was of great service in training men for war occupations during 1917 and 1918.

The Carnegie Technical Schools of Pitts burgh offer trade work on a large scale to both sexes as a part of a huge plan of technical in struction. The School for Apprentices and Journeymen gives classes for those already at work. The instruction is both theoretical and practical, with the object of turning out skilled mechanics. The Margaret Morrison School for Women offers training in home-malring and also in wage-earning pursuits.

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