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Wood-Working Tools

edge, gauge, wood, marking, cord, gauges, consists and spike

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The small tools used in wood-working are those mainly employed in carpentry work and consist of the various forms of "guiding" tools, "holdings" tools, "rasping" tools, "edge" tools or °cutting° tools, "boring" tools, "striking" tools and "chopping" tools.

The machine tools include the various forms of lathes, borers, shapers and Blotters, equipped with suitable accessory devices such as cutters, drills, etc., according to the purposes for which they are used in turning, boring, drilling and other kinds of work in wood. The machine tools are always operated by power and in re cent years a good many hand tools, as drills, are power-driven.

The guiding tools comprise the following named devices: This consists of several yards of light cord wound upon a wooden reel. The cord is well rubbed in with chalk or with char %\ coal and is u ed for the purpose of making marks where c s have to be made.

This a thin, flat, narrow strip of hard wood, ivory r metal, frequently two feet in length, and gra uated or divided on both sides by a series of ' es at right angles to the l edge of the strip into hes and tractions of an inch, such as halves, quaiters, eighths, twelfths, sixteenths and thirty-seconds.

This consists of a long, flat strip of hard wood, or of bright hard steel. Straight-edges range from four to six feet in length and from two to four inches in width. When they are made of wood, well-seasoned material free from winding is essential, and a metal edge is commonly attached, and when made of steel they are often nickel-plated in order to prevent them from rusting. They are used for ruling and marking straight lines.

The Squares or square usually consists of a wooden stock or back into which a steel blade is fitted at right angles and secured by screws or rivets. It is used for marking-out work at right angles. Squares vary in size from 3 to 30 inches. Sometimes they are made entirely of plain or of nickel plated steel and have scales engraved on their edges.

consists of a glass tube partially filled with a quantity of spirit so as to allow of the existence of an air-bubble about half an inch in length within the tube. This tube is enclosed in a framework of hard wood the edges of which are perfectly level and true and parallel to the axis of the tube. It is protected on the most important sides, the edges, by metallic facings and is provided with a sight hole either on the top or at the side through which the movements of the bubble may be ob served. Spirit-levels range in length from 8 to

48 inches and are used for the purpose of ascer taining whether the surface of a piece of work or the portion of a structure is truly horizontal or truly perpendicular.

This is a cord attached to the exact centre of the upper end of a vertical straight-edge. A weight suspended from the lower end of the cord swings freely in a pear shaped hole near the lower end of the straight edge. A straight line is marked on the straight edge from the centre of the pear-shaped hole to the point of attachment of the cord. In testing the perpendicularity of a surface, one edge of the straight-edge is placed against the surface under test and the coincidence of the cord with the line marked on the straight-edge is carefully noted.

common kinds of gauges are used in carpentry work—the "marking" gauge, the "cutting" gauge and the "mortise" gauge. The marking gauge consists of a head or block which slides along a shank about nine inches long. A spike is inserted near the end of the shank and the movable head is provided with a screw or a wedge by which it may be fixed at any required distance from the spike. It is used for the purpose of making a mark on a piece of wood parallel to an edge which has been previously straightened and along which the head of the gauge is guided while the spike inflicts the mark. It is very useful in dressing several pieces of wood to exactly the same breadth. The cutting gauge is similar to the marking gauge in all respects with the excep tion of the spike which is replaced by a thin steel plate. This plate passes through the shank and is held in place by a set-screw and is sharpened on one edge so that it is capable of cutting either with or across the grain. It is used for gauging dovetailed work and for cut ting veneers to equal breadths. The mortise gauge is also similar to the other two gauges but it is provided with two spikes, one fixed and the other movable and capable of being adjusted at different distances from the fixed spike by means of a set-sc:ew. It is used for the pur pose of gauging mortise and tenon work. Compound gauges consisting of combinations of cutting and marking gauges or of marking and mortise gauges are also commonly used for the purposes designated.

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