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or Colum Bian Order Tammany Society

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TAMMANY SOCIETY, or COLUM BIAN ORDER, The, was founded 12 May 1789 by William Mooney, ex-Revolutionary soldier (two weeks after the national g.overn ment was established), as (a fraternity of patriots solemnly consecrated to the independ ence, the popular liberty and the federal union of the country?' It had for its objects (1) the perpetuity of democratic-republican institu tions; (2) benevolent care of Revolutionary soldiers and others of its members, °their widows and orphans, and others who may be proper objects of their charity.* The member ship was composed of those who were lmown before the Revolution as °Sons of Liberty' and °Sons of Saint Tairunane; societies formed to promote the cause of independence. The society was opposed to the Saint George, Saint David and Saint Andrew societies, whose Tory members openly proclaimed fealty to George III. After the Revolution, Alexander Hamilton (q.v.) removed the political disabilities of these Tories (1787) and they became the foundation of the Federalist party, and being rich and influential fought corruptly for Hamil ton's scheme of a Federal President and Senate, to hold office for life, who should appoint the State goverrunents and dominate Congress. Many of these Loyalist Tories were elevated to office immediately on their enfranchisement This enraged the °Liberty Boys" who fought England's soldiers, and suffered repeated be trayal by these same Loyalists whose plots were many against the patriots. Many of these Tory conspiracies were successful and sent ntunbers of patriots to the charnel prison ships to meet death; others failed, as whew the Tory mayor of New York, Mathews, plotted to kidnap Washington and assassinate his staff. The hatred bred by these and kindred infamies was fanned to flame by the disfranchisement of Revolutionary soldiers whose means and prop erty were meagre. In 1.777 the constitutions drafted and operative in New York State gave the right to vote only to those who owned °freehold to the value of 100 pounds, free of all debts.* This gave full political power to the rich Loyalist Tories who monopolized trade and banking privileges, while it disqualified the bulk of those who fought in the patriot army and those who were punished by poverty for nobly sustaining the Revolutionary cause. The founding of the Society of the Cincinnati (q.v.) augumented the existing bitterness and hatred. Jefferson and others pointed out its menace to the liberties of the people and its monarchial plan to found an order of hereditary nobles, with militarism as a basis. The Tammany Society was founded as a crowning protest to these portentous happenings and to discredit Alexander Hamilton's prophecy that the demo cratic-republican scheme of goverrunent was doomed to disastrous failure.

Early History.—The Tammany Society was divided into 13 tribes corresponding to the 13 original States. The Society adopted Indian titles and ceremonials and the forms and usages of the aborigines to the fullest extent practical. The wigwam was the term applied to the So ciety's place of meeting. Indian symbols and mottoes were used to designate the 13 tribes, as follows: The Engle Tribe, New York State. The Otter Tribe, New Hampshire. The Panther Tribe, Massachusetts. The Beaver Tribe, Rhode Island. The Bear Tribe. Connecticut The Tortoise Tribe. New Jersey. The Tiger Tribe, Delaware.

The Kattlesnake Tribe, Pennsylvania The Pox Tribe. Maryland.

The Deer Tribes Vinlinia.

The Buffalo Tribe. North Carolina. The Raccoon Tram, South Carolina. The Wolf Tribe Georgia.

The 13 sachems (or trustees) annually elected a grand sachem or president. The kitchi okeinaw, or great grand sachem, was an honorary office conferred upon the following Presidents of the United States: Washington, John Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, John Quincy Adams and Jacicson. The office was abolished after General Jackson's incumbency. The Sagamore was the master of ceremonies and the Wiskinskie the sergeant-at-arms. Ac cording to the true Indian fashion the year was divided into seasons and these subdivided into moons. The era began with the discovery of America by Columbus and included the year of the Declaration of Independence and of the founding of the Society. (New York City, 3 Dec. 1903, is written by the Society thus: Man hattan Season of Snows, 12th moon, year of discovery 411th, of Independence 127th and of Institution 114th). The Society motto is °Free

dom our Rock.* The following toasts at the 4 July 1789 banquet illustrate the Society's sentiments from its formation. Thirteen cannon shots followed each toast. These are the two first toasts: (1) °May honor, virtue and patri otism ever be the distinguished characteristics of the Sons 'of Saint Tammany.* (2) °The head men and chiefs of the Grand Council of the Thirteen United Fires—may they convince our foes not only of their courage to lift, pru dence to direct, and clemency to withhold the hatchet, but of their power to inflict it in their country's Cause.* Achievements.— The national government repeatedly failed to conclude a treaty of peace with the warlike Creek Indians whom the Fed eral government was anxious to placate. The Tammany Society undertook the conciliation. The Celtic half-breed chief McGillivray, who led the Creek tribe of Indians, with 28 of his chiefs and warriors were brought to New York by Tammany and given a banquet 2 Aug. 1790. The Tammany braves were in full Indian cos tume when they escorted McGillivray and his warriors to President Washington. The treaty was signed 13 Aug. 1790. The Sodety in June 1790 founded a museum for °the preservation, collection, and study of Indian relics, etc?' In 1791 the Society, under the direction of John Pintard, its first saga.more, founded many edu cational and progressive institutions which later develo.ped great efficiency under the Society's fostering care. Two of these institutions have since merited national recognition, namely, New York Historical Society (q.v.) and the Acad emy of Design (q.v.). In 1793, when France in desperation struggled to overthrow feudal op pression, the Tammany Society's sympathy and moral. support was prompt, enthusiastic and endunng. Sentiments and sympathies of politi cal and other associations were usually expressed by toasts at a banquet specially held for that purpose. Until about 1840 these °public din ners* were the chief means of announcing the policies, booms and sentiments of political and social bodies. On 12 May 1793 the Tammany Society, at its annual dinner, gave the toast, °Success to the Armies of France, and wisdom, concord, and firmness to the Convention? This was greeted with roars of applause for many minutes. The society suffered a flood of vitu peration, abuse and threats of grave harm from the Tories and Federalists. In 1800 the society bought real estate collectively to comply with the property qualifications imposed on the voter. On 13 April 1808 the society marched in a body to Wallabout (°Wallabocht9 Bay, where the foundation stones were laid by them of the receiving vault, for the bones of 11,600 patriots, victims of England's brutality. The society collected 11 hogsheads of bones along the beach of Wallabout Bay of those who died of hunger, disease and cold in the awful English prison ships. Tammany interred these bones in a tomb near the present navy yard with imposing mili tary and civil ceremonials. In 1812 the Tam many Society loudly called for war with Eng land, pledging °their lives, fortunes and sacred honor* in support of the government for the waging of °that just and necessary war? At every stage of the conflict the Society gave full and loyal support. Tammany Hall in Nassau street became the headquarters of the war party where they hoisted the flag to proclaim each victory and celebrated the success of the Ameri can forces in loyal. manner. Tammany also gave a fighting force to the nation, which de veloped later three able generals and a colonel. In August 1814 about 1,200 members of Tam many Hall went in a body to firooklyn and erected earthworks and other defenses. On 29 June 1814 members of the Tammany Society mobbed a large Federalist meeting gathered to celebrate the return of the Bourbon dynasty to the throne of France. In 1817 the Society with high patriotic speeches and ceremonial made imposing interment of General Montgomery in Saint Paul's churchyard. On 23 Feb. 1819 Tammany gave a banquet in honor of Gen. Andrew Jackson at which they launched a boom in his behalf for the Presidency.

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