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or Sverige Sweden

south, west, land, cent, feet, norway, baltic and gulf

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SWEDEN, or SVERIGE, a northern European state, forming with Norway (q.v.) a united kingdom, occupying the whole of the peninsula known in ancient times by the name of Scandinavia. Sweden is situated be tween lat. 55° 20' and 69° N.; and long. 11° 40' and 24° E.; and is bounded north and west by Norway; southwest by the Skager-Rack, Katte gat and Sound; south by the Baltic; east by the Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia ; and northeast by the Tornea and its affluent the Muonio, sepa rating it from Finland. In addition to the mainland it has a great number of islands, most of small dimensions, lying close to the coast. The largest, and also the most distant, is Gota land, or Gothland, in the Baltic.

Sweden consists of the three historical divi sions of Swealand or Sweden proper in the middle, GOtaland, or Gothland, in the south and Norrland in the north. For administrative pur poses it is divided into Fans or governments. The area is estimated at 173,035 square miles, of which 3,700 are occupied by the larger lakes; the population in 1917 was estimated at 5,757, 566, of whom Z817,950 were males and 2,939,616 females. The average density is 33.3 per square mile. For 1916 the total recorded births num bered 121,214; deaths, 77,683; and marriages, 35,156, The same year 10,571 persons emi grated, 7,268 going to the United States. The recent increase in population chiefly affected the larger cities. In 1917 Stockholm numbered 111,823 inhabitants; Goteborg, 191,535; Malmo, 35,783; Norrkoping, 55,623; Kalsingborg, 35, 783; Gafle, 36,623; Orebro, 34,453; Eskilstuna, 30,111, and Karlskrona, 28,556.

Between 1860 and 1916 the town population had risen from 434,519 to 1,617,116, showing an increase of from 11 per cent of the total popu lation of Sweden in the first-named year to 28 per cent in 1916; and between 1840 and 1910 the number of persons dependent on commerce and industry had risen from 10.75 per cent to 45.39 per cent. At the present time the pro portions are about equal.

Topography.— The coast-line, above 1,400 miles in length, is serrated rather than deeply indented; its bays and creeks, though very numerous, having neither the width hor tor tuous lengths by which the fiords of Norway are characterized. The west coast is very rocicy, but seldom rises so high as 30 feet. Along the south and southeast coa.st low shores alternate with precipitous cliffs, which, however, are of no great elevation. As above stated

many islets are scattered near the shores, and these where they form the archipelago of Stock holm are especially numerous. The whole of the upper part of the shore of the Gulf of Both nia consists of sandy alluvial deposits, which are brought down by the rivers in such quanti ties that they seem destined at no distant period to convert a large portion of the gulf into dry land. It would appear, however, that alluvium is not the only agent employed in carrying on this process of shallowing, since it has been proved that the whole coast of Sweden is con tinually rising, the rise being greatest in the north.

The intertor of Sweden is by no means gen erally mountainous, and its surface has far less of a highland than of a lowland character. The most elevated portion of it commences in the west near the parallel of 62°, and is continued north along the frontiers of Norway, not so much in a continuous chain as in isolated moun tain-masses rising from an elevated table-land, which, where loftiest, is at least 4,000 feet, and forms the base of several summits which rise more than 6,000 feet above sea-level, and owing to their high altitude are covered with perpetual snow. The two loftiest mountains, Sarjekt ialcko and Kebnekaisse, both in Swedish Lap land, attain a height of about 7,000 feet. Other lofty peaks are Sulitjelma and Sylfjellen, be tween lat. 63° and 67 on the Norwegian fron tier. These mountains and their table-land slope east toward the Gulf of Bothnia, sending down numerous torrents, which in their course often expand and form chains of lakes and dreary swamps. The same slope is continued south of 62° N., but besides it there is a south slope which attains its lowest level near lat. 59° N., on the shores of the magnificent lakes which there stretch almost continuously across the country east to west. To the south of 59° N. the country is generally flat, though in many parts finely diversified. This region has several fertile and well-cultivated tracts, but a good deal of it is covered by barren sand or stunted heath, though interspersed with forests, green meadows and cornfields. What is called the Plain of Scania, occupying the whole of thc south peninsula between the Sound on the west and the Baltic on the south and east, is gener ally a fine tract of land.

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