TINDALL, or TYNDALE, William, Eng lish reformer and translator of the Bible: b. near Welsh borders, about 1490; d. Vilvoorden, Belgium, 6 Aug. 1536. He entered the Univer sity of Oxford in 1510, and was graduated in 1512. He subsequently went to Cambridge, where he resided till 1521, and about this latter date became tutor to the children of Sir John Walsh, a landed gentleman in Gloucestershire. He preached with great acceptance in the neigh borhood, but soon got into trouble owing to his unorthodox views. In 1523 he went to London, where he came under the influence of Luther's teaching. It was at this time that he began his translation of the New Testament, but find ing it unsafe to carry out such a work in Eng land, he went to Hamburg in 1524, and immedi ately afterward to Luther at Wittenberg, where he remained till April 1525. During this time he was proceeding with his translation, with the assistance of one William Roy, and the printing of it was begun at Cologne in 1525. A Roman Catholic clergyman, John Cochlxus, came to know of this, and obtained an injunction order ing the stoppage of the work, whereupon Tin dall went to Worms and had the work printed there. It was smuggled into England in 1526, and at once Archbishop Warham and Bishop Tunstall took the lead in seizing and burning copies. Attempts were also made to get hold of Tindall, but he fled to Marburg, where he enjoyed the protection of the landgrave of Hesse. Here he became a Zwinglian in his attitude on the Eucharist, and published some of his most important original works, including The Parable of the Wicked Mammon' (1528) ; 'The Obedience of a Christian Man,) and 'How Christian Rulers Ought to Govern' (1528), and 'The Practyse of Prelates' (1530). He
also engaged in a vigorous polemic with Sir Thomas More. From Marburg he went to the Netherlands, and for several years resided in Antwerp, but toward 1533 left the city for a time, owing to Henry VIII's efforts to seize him. In 1535 he was captured at Antwerp by the imperial officers, assisted by an English Roman Catholic student named Phillips who professed to adopt his reforming opinions. He was lodged in the state prison at Vilvoorden, near Brussels, and despite some efforts to save him, made by Cromwell and others, he was tried for heresy, condemned, degraded from holy orders, then strangled and his body burned. A fragment of the interrupted Cologne print of his New Testament translation is in the British Museum, and there are two extant copies of the first edition of his complete New Testa ment (1525), one (practically complete) in the Baptist College, Bristol, the other (incomplete) in Saint Paul's Cathedral. A revised edition was issued by him at Antwerp in 1534, and a further revision in the following year. His translation of the Pentateuch appeared at Mar burg in 1529-30, and that of Jonah at Antwerp in 1531; a copy of each is in the British Mu seum. Tindall's translation is of much import ance in the history of the English style and English literature, and formed the basis, as far as it went, of the Authorized Version of nearly a century later. There is an edition of Tindall's original works by the Parker Society (3 vols.; 184.3-50). Consult Demaus, 'Life of William Tindall' (1886) ; Price, I. M., 'Ancestry of Our English Bible' (Phila. 1907).