Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27 >> 1 The War With to 35 The Political Events

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27

1 The War With
1& The War With France. The Outbreak Of War In 1793 Between Great Britain And The French Republic Placed The United States In A Most Embarrassing Position. Presi Dent Washington Determined To Adopt A Policy Of Neutrality, But For Two Reasons He Found It Very Difficult To Do So. In ...

10 Finances 1775 1789
10. Finances (1775-1789). The Fiscal Systems Of The American Colonies Were Of A Sim Ple Character; Expenditures Were Small And Taxes Correspondingly Light. Some Of The Local Governments Levied Excise Duties Upon Articles Of Luxury; Nearly All Placed Tariff Duties Upon Imports Or Exports; And The Property Tax Was Generally ...

11 The Federal Convention
11. The Federal Convention Of 1787. Early In The War Of The Revolution The Several Colonies Represented In That Revolu Tionary Body, The Continental Congress, Recog Nized That Some Form Of A Regularly Ordained Central Government Was Desirable. It Was 17 Nov. 1777, However, Before That Body Could Agree Upon ...

12 Beginnings Of Party
12. Beginnings Of Party Or Ganization And Growth Of The Party System And Party Ma Chinery. Political Parties So-called Have Existed In The United States From The Beginning Of Its Independent National Life. Even Earlier, While The Colonies Owed Alle Giance To The Governments Of Europe, There Were Traces Of ...

13 The Colonial And
13. The Colonial And Terri Torial Systems. Under The Generally Well-known Name Of ' *territorial Govern Ment,* The United States Has Developed One Of The Best Systems Of Colonial Government That Has Ever Existed. When, Acting Under The Sug Gestions Of Maryland, Several Of The Colonies Between 1780 And 1784 ...

14 The Cabinet
14. The Cabinet. The Cabinet, As The Name Is Used In American Affairs, Is The Presi Dent's Council. It Is Composed Of The Heads Of Tfie Nine Great Executive Departments. Four Of These Are Older Than The Government Under The Constitution, For The Old Congress Had Found It Necessary To ...

15 The Alien And
15. The Alien And Sedition Laws. Alien And Sedition Laws, In The Po Litical History Of The United States, Were Four Laws Passed By The Federalist Party In Congress, June And July 1798, During President Adams' Administration. These Laws Gave Rise To The First Nullification Proceedings In The South, Namely, ...

16 The Judiciary
16. The Judiciary. Origin And De Velopment. (a) State Courts. While Our American Judicial System, Like So Many Of Our Institutions, Was Modeled After That Of England And Was Permeated By The Principles And Tradi Tions Of The English Law, It Is Also True That For Practical Purposes It Dates ...

17 Diplomacy
17. Diplomacy. No Complete History Of The Diplomacy Of This Country Has;. Been Written. Much Of Its Diplomatic Effort Has Been Spent Upon Private Claims And Nat,ional Affairs, Commercial Rather Than Political, History Of These Would Be Dull Reading.-im Deed. Moreover, It Must Be Confessed _that For Long Periods In ...

19 The Louisiana Purchase
19. The Louisiana Purchase. The Vast Province Of Louisiana Was Ceded By France To The United States 30 April 1803, The Purchase Price Being $15,000,000. Originally Belonging To France, Louisiana Was Ceded To Spain By The Treaty Of Paris In 1763, And Was Retroceded To France For The Purpose Of ...

2 General Outline History
2. General Outline History 51776-1920). At The Close Of The French War England Had No Settled Policy Of Colonial Ad Ministration, Nor Could There Be Said To Be A Definite Understanding As To The Constitutional Relationship Of The Colonies To The Mother-coun Try. She Entered Upon Plans Which Brought Before ...

20 Causes Of The
20. Causes Of The War Of 1812. The Latter Years Of The 18th And The Earlier Years Of The 19th Centuries Witnessed A Phe Nomenal Growth Of American Commerce Due To Incessant Wars In Europe. Naturalization Was Easy In The United States And The Wages Of Seamen Were High. Great ...

21 The War Of
21. The War Of 1812. The War Of 1812 Began Officially On 18 June. The Army Of The United States Numbered At That Time 6,744 Regulars. It Was Poorly Equipped, Poorly Drilled And Its Morale Was Extremely Low. But Congress Had Authorized Its Increase To 25,000 And Provided, At Least ...

22 Finances 1789 1816
22. Finances (1789-1816). Finances Of The United States Government In 1789 Were In A Most Unfavorable Condition. Not Only Had The Revolutionary War Left A Legacy Of National Indebtedness, Amounting In 1784 To $39,000,000 Exclusive Of The Continental Bills Of Credit, But Owing To The Defective Revenue System Pre Scribed ...

23 Westward Movement
23. Westward Movement. The Curtain Which Veiled Far Cathay And The Mystic East Was Raised During The Crusades, But The Trade Of Europe Was Blocked By The Intrusion Of The Ottoman Turks. Adventurous Captains, Barred By The Scimeter In The East, By The Cold Of The North And The Heat ...

24 The New Democracy
24. The New Democracy And The Spoils System. The Use Of The Appointing Power To Secure, In Addition To The Execution Of The Functions Attached To The Various Offices, Other Purposes Such As The En Richment Of One's Family, The Building Up Of Personal Or Party Support, The Carrying Out ...

25 Annexation Of Texas
25. Annexation Of Texas. The Louisiana Purchase In 1803 Gave The United States A Shadowy Claim To Texas. This Claim Was Strengthened By Each Succeeding Ad Ministration Until 1819, When All Rights Beyond The River Sabine Were Given Up As A Considera Tion To Spain For The Cession Of The ...

26 The Abolition And
26. The Abolition And Free Soil Movements. The First Important And Concerted Movement In America For Giving Freedom To The Slave Began With Quakers. Their Persistent Opposition To Human Slavery Arose From The Nature Of Their Doctrines. Even Before The American Revolution, Individual Quakers Like John Woolman Of Philadelphia Raised ...

27 The Mexican War
27. The Mexican War. Owing To Its Close Association With The Slavery Contro Versy The Mexican War Has Been The Subject Of Almost Endless Dispute. Many People Be Lieved At The Time, And Many Others Still Believe, That It Was Forced On By A Democratic Admin Istration In Order To ...

28 Slavery
28. Slavery. When The English Colo Nies Were First Established In America, Chattel Slavery Of White People Had Nearly Died Out In Christian Europe, Although Serfdom To The Owner Of The Estate To Which One Was Attached Still Prevailed In Russia, Germany And Many Other Parts Of Europe. In England ...

29 Finances 1816 1861
29. Finances (1816-1861). In 1816, At The Close Of War With England, The Chief Prob Lem Of The Government Was The Restoration Of Currency To A Specie Basis. Dallas, Upon Assum Ing The Office Of Secretary Of The Treasury In 1814, Vigorously Endeavored To Secure A Charter For A Second ...

3 Causes Of The
3. Causes Of The Revolution. The Political And Constitutional Relations Be Tween Great Britain And The English Dominions In America In 1760 Were Ill-defined, And Funda Mental Understanding Between The English Com Munities On The Two Sides Of The Atlantic As To The Essential Qualities Of The Connection Was Lacking. ...

30 Efforts To Settle
30. Efforts To Settle The Sla Very Question. In All Co-operative Ef Forts Of The North And South To Settle Disputes Over Slavery The Preservation Of Both Slavery And The Union Were Objects Of Primary Consid Eration. The Roots Of Such Efforts Are Found In The Compromises Of The Constitutional ...

31 Causes Of The
31. Causes Of The Civil War. The Civil War Was The Culmination Of The Development Of Conflicting Interests And Feel Ings Between The Slave And The Free States. Slavery In Colonial Days, Aided By Favoring Physical Conditions, Obtained A Deeper Hold In The South Than It Did In The North. ...

32 Secession
32. Secession. The Secession Of 11 Southern States Of The American Union During The Winter And Spring Of 1860-61 Is The Most Significant Fact In American History After The Adoption Of The Federal Constitution. It Was The One Great Attempt To Make Of The United States Two Republics Instead Of ...

33 Military Events Of
33. Military Events Of The Civil War. The Flag Of The United States Was First Fired Upon During The Civil War By Some Batteries Erected Against Fort Sumter In Charleston Harbor. The Occasion Was The Ap Pearance Of The Star Of The West On 9 Jan. 1861, Off The Harbor, ...

34 The Confederacy
34. The Confederacy. When The Election Of Mr. Lincoln By The Practically Unanimous Vete Of The Free States Was An Nounced In. The Autumn Of 1860, The Slave States Of The Lower South Made Preparations To Exer Cise What They Regarded As Their Constitutional Right Of Seceding From The Union. ...

35 The Political Events
35. The Political Events Of The Civil War. The Civil War In Amer Ica Began By The Confederate Attack On Fort Sumter, 12 April 1861. The Secession Move Ment Had Begun Upon Lincoln's Election; War Had Become Inevitable At The Time Of His Inaugu Ration. Two Authorities Two Sovereignties ...