33. MILITARY EVENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR. The flag of the United States was first fired upon during the Civil War by some batteries erected against Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. The occasion was the ap pearance of the Star of the West on 9 Jan. 1861, off the harbor, bringing supplies of pro visions from New York for Fort Sumter. This fort, under command of Major Anderson, was forced to surrender to General Beauregard 14 April 1861. Thereupon President Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers. In the spring of 1861, after some skirmishes be tween Union 'forces and Confederate troops dispatched to western Virginia to hold that section within the Confederate lines, West Virginia seceded from Virginia and passed per manently into the Union lines. In July the army in front of Washington, under General McDowell, prepared to advance against the main Confederate army, under General Beauregard; and the encounter took place on the 21st at Manassas, where, on the arrival of the last brigade of Johnston's army, Beauregard's attack upon the Union flank turned McDowell's ad vance into a disorderly retreat, the army fleeing back to Washington. This signal defeat of the Union arms produced great mortification and consternation at the North. But the South was correspondingly elated and regarded this bril liant victory as an augury of the ultimate suc cess of the Confederate cause. Both sides now proceeded to make more vigorous preparations.
General McClellan was summoned from West Virginia and given command of the De partment of the Potomac, and forthwith he set •about organizing the troops rushing in from all parts of the North. On 20 August 'he took command of the Army of the Potomac, now first organized under that title, and 1 Novem ber he was appointed commander-in-chief of the armies of the United States, superseding Gen. Winfield Scott, who was retired, at his own in stance, because of failing health. After the battle of Bull Run but little hard fighting oc curred during the remainder of 1861. Both sides contented themselves with establishing their respective lines. On 15 August President Davis ordered all Northern men to leave the South within the next 40 days. President Lin coln thereupon proclaimed the seceded States in rebellion and prohibited all intercourse.
Early in 1862 the Confederate line through Kentucky was broken by separate attacks under General Thomas and General Garfield. On 6 February Admiral Foote's fleet, with the aid of General Grant's forces, captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee, and Grant then moved on Fort Donelson and forced it to surrender, 16 February, with 15,000 men. On 7 April General
Pope captured Island No. 10. About the same time Gen. A. Sidney Johnston, with headquar ters established at Corinth, attacked Grant awaiting Buell, at Shiloh Church, near Pittsburg Landing. Johnston was killed, and Beauregard in command of the Confederates was driven back by Grant and Buell, who had meanwhile joined him. Defeated, Beauregard returned to Corinth. The Federals now began an advance on Corinth. The Confederates ordered Price and Van Dorn from west of the Mississippi to defend the city; but on Halleck's drawing near Corinth, it was learned that the Confederates had already evacuated it. General Bragg, who had succeeded Beauregard, proceeded to Chatta nooga by way of Mobile, forcing Buell mean while to withdraw to the Ohio to protect his department. At the same time Gen. E. Kirby Smith invaded Kentucky, and defeating the Federals at Richmond on 30 August, he threat ened Cincinnati. Thereupon Buell advanced from Louisville against Bragg, who, as a re sult of the battle of Perryville on 8 October, was compelled to abandon Kentucky.
In September Price and Van Dorn advanced against Grant and Rosecrans, near Corinth, and were both defeated. After this campaign Rose crans was sent to relieve Buell in command of the Army of the 'Cumberland, 30 October. On assuming command Rosecrans concentrated his army at Nashville. On 26 December he moved toward Murfreesboro to attack Bragg, and there ensued a three days' battle ending 2 Jan. 1863. Rosecrans occupied Murfreesboro, and Bragg retreated to Shelbyville, Tullahoma and Wartrace. Both armies then went into winter quarters. On 8 March 1862 the Union fleet in Hampton Roads was attacked by the Confeder ate ironclad Merrimac, which inflicted heavy loss. However, on the following day the Mer rimac was met by the Monitor and, after a severe engagement, retired to Norfolk, where she was blown up at the evacuation of that city by the Confederates, 9 May. The Western rivers, too, were the scene of some active naval engagements. Farragut's fleet did effective work on the Mississippi, taking New Orleans 1 May, and a little later Baton Rouge and Nat chez. The Confederate flotilla under Commo dore Montgomery was destroyed by Commo dore Foote's fleet, in a desperate fight before Memphis, 6 June; and Memphis surrendered to the victorious fleet. At Galveston, however, the Confederates under Magruder, with the aid of an ordinary river fleet, won a brilliant victory; and the Alabama (which was sunk by the Kear sarge off Cherbourg in 1864) captured the gun boat Hatteras.