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48 the Vice-Presidency

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48. THE VICE-PRESIDENCY. By pro vision of the Federal Constitution, a Vice-Presi dent of the United States is elected at the same time, for the same term and in like manner as the President by electors chosen in each of the States. A majority of the votes cast in the several electoral colleges is necessary to an election. The Vice-President is the president of the Senate, and in the event of an equal division in that body he gives the deciding vote. Under no other contingency has he a vote. The powers and duties of the office of Presi dent devolve upon the Vice-President in case of the death, resignation or removal from office of the President. The Vice-President is in cluded in the category of public officers liable to removal from office on impeachment and conviction for treason, bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors. By the 12th Amendment to the Constitution no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be elected to that of Vice President. In the event of a vacancy occurring in the office of Vice-President, the Senate is presided over by a member of that body. In such contingency the death of the President would, under existing law, devolve the office of President upon the Secretary of State. Twenty-eight persons have held the office of Vice-President; their names and the dates of their respective elections are as follows, viz.: John Adams, of Massachusetts, elected in 1788, re-elected in 1792; Thomas Jefferson, of Vir ginia, in 1796; Aaron Burr, of New York, in 1800; George Clinton, of New York, in 1804, re-elected in 1808; Elbridge Gerry, of Massa chusetts, in 1812; Daniel D. Tompkins, of New York, in 1816, re-elected in 1820; John C. Cal houn of South Carolina, in 1824, re-elected in 1828; Martin Van Buren, of New York, in 1832: Richard M. Tohnson. of Kentucky. in 1836; John Tyler, of Virginia, in 1840; George M. Dallas, of Pennsylvania, in 1844; Millard Fillmore, of New York, in 1848; William R. King, of Alabama, in 1852; John C. Brecken ridge, of Kentucky, in 1856; Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, in 1860; Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, in 1864; Schuyler Colfax, of In diana, in 1868; Henry Wilson of Massachusetts, in 1872; William A. Wheeler, of New York, in 1876; Chester A. Arthur, of New York, in 1880; Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indiana, in 1884; Levi P. Morton, of New York, in 1888; Adlai E. Stevenson, of Illinois, in 1892; Garrett A. Hobart, of New Jersey, in 1896; Theodore Roosevelt, of New York, in 1900; Charles W. Fairbanks, of Jndiana, in 1904; James S. Sherman in 1908; and Thomas R. Marshall in

1912.

Four Vice-Presidents were subsequently elected President, viz.: John Adams in 1796; Thomas Jefferson in 1800 and 1804; Martin Van Buren in 1836; and Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. The dates given have reference to the election by popular vote of the electors in the several States. Seven Vice-Presidents died in office, viz.: Clinton, Gerry, King, Wilson, Hendricks, Hobart and Sherman. In the Presidential contest of 1836 Martin Van Buren received a majority of the electoral votes for President, but no candidate received a majority for Vice-President. By constitu tional requirement the duty of electing a Vice President then devolved upon the Senate; the candidates from whom such choice was to be made being restricted to the two who had re ceived the highest number of electoral votes. One of these, Richard M. Johnson, of Ken tucky, was duly elected by the Senate. The only Vice-President who resigned the office was John C. Calhoun. This occurred in 1832, and Mr. Calhoun soon thereafter took his seat in the Senate, to which body he had been elected by the legislature of South Carolina.

Five Vice-Presidents have, upon the death of the President, succeeded to the Presidency. The first President to die durinif his incum bency of the great office was William Henry Harrison; his death occurred 4 April 1841, just one month after his inauguration. The Vice President, John Tyler, then at his country home in Virginia, was officially notified of the event, and upon reaching the seat of govern ment at once took the oath of office as Presi dent. There was much discussion for a time in and out of Congress as to his proper title, whether uVice-President of the United States acting as President" or °President)) The lan guage of the Constitution, however, is clear, and it is no longer controverted that upon the death of the President the Vice-President be comes in name as in fact — President. Upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, 9 ,July 1850, Vice-President Millard Fillmore succeeded to the Presidency, and was at a later date an unsuccessful candidate for election to that office. The third Vice-President who reached the Presidency by succession was Andrew John son; this occurred 15 April 1865, the day fol lowing the assassination of President Lincoln. President Garfield was shot 2 July 1881 and died in September of that year, when he was suc ceeded by Vice-President Chester A. Arthur. Vice-President Roosevelt was the successor of President McKinley, who died by the hand of an assassin in September 1901.

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