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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27

36 Finances 1861 1919
36. Finances (1861-1919). In The Win Ter Of 1860-61 The Finances Of The Federal Gov Ernment Were Most Discouraging. Secession Was Under Way; National Credit Depressed, And Executive Efficiency Was Slowly Disintegrating. There Was Little Confidence That The Republican Party, Which Had Carried The Election In Novem Ber 1860, Would ...

37 Reconstruction
37. Reconstruction. With The Sur Render Of The Southern Armies And The Collapse Of The Confederate Government All Organized Resistance To The Authority Of The United States Was At An End, But A Problem Second Only To That Of Suppressing The Insurrection Now Confronted The Nation. This Was The Question ...

39 The War With
39. The War With Spain. The Spanish-american War Of 1898 Was The Out Come Of Conditions Set Up In Cuba By The Political Discontent In The Island During Nearly The Whole Of The 19th Century, Varied In The Latter Half By Long-continued Revolts. The United States Government, Controlled As It ...

4 The American Revolution
4. The American Revolution (military Events). The Fundamental Fact In The British Strategy Of The American Campaigns Was Their Possession Of Control Of Sea-power, For The Use Of Which In Penetration Of The Seaboard Strip By The Openings Of The Hudson River And Chesapeake Bay, The Topog Raphy Afforded Pre-eminent ...

40 Territorial Expansion
40. Territorial Expansion. The Territorial Expansion Of The United States Dates From The Peace Treaty Of 1783, By Which Their Independence Was Recognized And Their Boundaries Named. There Had Been Much Un Certainty About The Boundaries Of The Colonies For A Considerable Period Prior To The War Of The Revolution, ...

41 State Constitutions 1789
41. State Constitutions (1789 1919). The American Union Is Composed Of 48 States Or Commonwealths, Each Of Which Has A Body Of Fundamental Law Known As A Constitution. The Sphere Of Government Activ Ity Which May Be Covered By The State Has Been Negatively Defined In The Constitution Of The ...

42 Immigration 1789 1916
42. Immigration (1789-1916). The Causes Which Operated Before The Revolution To Bring A Small Stream Of European Emigrants To The United States Continued To Operate After The Establishment Of The Federal Government. Though No Trustworthy Records Were Kept In The Early History Of The Republic, It Is Estimated That From ...

43 Suffrage
43. Suffrage. Suffrage Means Partici Pation In Government By Voting. There Arc Two Theories In Regard To Suffrage: (1) It Is A Privi Lege Granted By The State To Individuals; (2) It Is A Natural, Inherent Right Belonging To Every Man. The Former Is The Usually Accepted Theory; The Latter, ...

44 Civil And Religious
44. Civil And Religious Lib Erty. The Euphony And Familiarity Of This Title Must Be Broken So As To Read, °religious And Civil Liberty In America," If We Study The Subject In Its Logical Chronological Order, For Civil Liberty Follows And Is The Product Of Religious Liberty. A Hierarchy Implies ...

45 Disputed Elections
45. Disputed Elections. On Four Occasions The Electoral Colleges Have Failed In The Task Of Choosing A President And Vice-president. In 1801, After The Counting Of The Electoral Vote, The Question Was Left To Settle Which Of The Two Men, Jefferson Or Burr, Should Be President, And Which Vice-president. In ...

46 Impeachment
46. Impeachment. Impeachment In The National Government Is The Formal Act By Which The House Of Representatives Makes Ac Cusations, Before The Senate, Against The Presi Dent, The Vice-president Or Any "civil Officers' (executive And Judicial Officers, Except Those Of The Army And Navy) Of The United States Gov Ernment. ...

47 The Presidents Office
47. The President's Office. Ori Gin And Early Development.— In Theory The King Of England Was The Model For The Ameri !an Chief Executive. In Fact, The Framers Of The Constitution Were More Influenced By Such Prototypes As The Colonial Governors And The Official Heads Of The Recently-formed States. But ...

48 The Vice Presidency
48. The Vice-presidency. By Pro Vision Of The Federal Constitution, A Vice-presi Dent Of The United States Is Elected At The Same Time, For The Same Term And In Like Manner As The President By Electors Chosen In Each Of The States. A Majority Of The Votes Cast In The ...

49 Speaker Of The
49. Speaker Of The House Of Representatives. The Constitution Of The United States Provides That: The House Of Representatives Shall Choose A Speaker And Other Officers, And Shall Have The Sole Power Of Impeachment.) Even If The Power To Choose A Speaker Had Not Been Expressly Conferred By The Constitution, ...

5 The Declaration Of
5. The Declaration Of Inde Pendence. On 10 June 1776 The Con Tinental Congress Appointed A Committee To Draft A Declaration Of Independence. (see Declaration Of Independence). Jefferson, The Most Radical Theorist On This Committee, Wrote Out A Rough Draft Of The Declaration. This Was Carefully Revised By The Committee ...

50 History Of Arbitrations
50. History Of Arbitrations. International Arbitration Is A Voluntary Sub Mission Of Certain Definite Points In An Inter National Dispute To The Decision Of A Third Party. (the Decision Of The Arbitrator Or Court Of Arbi Tration Is Binding Except When The Award Is Outside Of The Points Submitted, Equivocal, ...

51 Growth And Development
51. Growth And Development Of Law. The History Of Law, Or The Rela Tions Of Members Of Society To One Another And Of All To The State, Is A History Of Organic Growth. Upon It Various Phases Of Political, Social And Economic Activities Of A People Have Left Indelible Traces. ...

52 Railroad Transportation
52. Railroad Transportation. The American Railway System.— The Con Struction Of Railroads In The United States Be Gan On A Small Scale In 1828 When The Baltimore And Ohio Built Its First Mileage. The Charles Ton And Hamburg Began Constructing Some Mileage In South Carolina In The Following Year, And ...

53 Foreign Commerce
53. Foreign Commerce. The For Eign Commerce Of The United States Has Ex Panded With Even Greater Rapidity Than That Of The Other Parts Of The World.' World Com Merce Increased From $1,000,000,000 In 1789, The Year Of Our Birth As A Nation, To $40,000, 000,000 In 1913, The Year ...

54 Industrial And Commer
54. Industrial And Commer Cial Development. The Chief Indus Trial And Commercial Development Of The United States Has Occurred Since The Civil War. With The Termination Of That Historic Struggle Which Destroyed Sectional Lines, The Reunited Nation Entered Upon The Development Of The Wonderful And Varied Powers Which Nature Had ...

55 Army Of The
55. Army Of The United States. The Army Of The United States Was The Legiti Mate Descendant Of The Old Militia Organizations Maintained In The Various Colonies Prior To The Revolution. The Nucleus Of The Regular Army Of The Nation Was The Small Force Of Riflemen Authorized By The Colonial ...

56 Navy Of The
56. Navy Of The United States. The American Navy Came Into Existence In 1775 After The Close Investment Of Boston By Wash Ington Had Cut Off All Supplies To The British Troops, Save Such As Might Arrive By Water. To Intercept These, Some Small Vessels Were Armed And Manned By ...

57 Navy Of The
57. Navy Of The United States, Chronological History Of. The Following Condensed History Of The United States Navy Embodies All The Essential Details Of Every Note Worthy Sea Fight In Which This Country Has Been Engaged From 1775 To 1919. Leading Incidents Of Legislative And Popular Interest Are Also In ...