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57 Navy of the United States

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57. NAVY OF THE UNITED STATES, Chronological History of. The following condensed history of the United States navy embodies all the essential details of every note worthy sea fight in which this country has been engaged from 1775 to 1919. Leading incidents of legislative and popular interest are also in cluded, all being compiled from the most au thentic official and historical sources.

1775. June 12 — First sea fight of the Revolution off Machias, Me. Two small coasting vessels manned by volunteers (armed chiefly with axes and pitch forks) under command of Jeremiah O'Brien, captured, after a severe battle, the English war cutter Margaretta, Lieutenant Moore, Americans, 1 killed, 6 wounded; Ifeglish, 5 killed. 9 wounded.

1775. July 12 — Two American trading vessels (armed for the emergency) attacked and captured, in Bay of Fundy, two regular English cruisers which had been fitted out expressly to avenge the Margarita. Jeremiah O'Brien, again, was American commander.

1775. Oct. 13 — First official step toward the establish ment of United States navy. Silas Deane, John Adams and John Langdon (" Fathers of Our Navy ") being appointed a committee by Congress to fit out two war. amps to cruise against the British.

1776. Jan. 15 — Seventeen volunteers put out of New buryport, Mass., in tnree whale boats (under Capt. Offin Boardman) and by clever stratagem captured an armed ship laden with provisions consigned to the British army at Boston.

1776. Jan. — — First flag ever unfurled aboard an American warship was hoisted by 1st Lieut. John Paul Jones on board the flagship Alfred, at Philadelphia. It was the grand union " Bag, having 13 American stripes with the English union jack in the field.

1776. Feb. 17 — First regularly organized naval expedition of the United States put to sea under the orders of Capt. Esek Hopkins. Its object was the capture of the island of New Providence. in the Bahamas, where there were large quantities of military stores. The fleet consisted of the 24-gun ship Alfred. 20-gun ship Columbus, 14-gun

brigs Andrea Darla and Cabot. 12-gun brig Providence. 10-gun sloop Horrid and 8-gun schooners Wasp and Fly.

1776. March 3 — American sailors and marines from Hopkins' fleet landed at New Providence. captured the two forts, made prisoner of Governor Brown, held tile place two weeks and, on 17 March, sailed with the military stores.

1776. April 6 — While entering Long Island Sound, Hop kins' fleet was attacked by the English 20-gun cruiser Glasgow, which was driven off only after a spirited action of several hours. The next day the fleet arrived at New London.

1776. April 17 — American cruiser Lexington, Capt. John Barry, captured English cruiser Edward after fighting one hour. Americans, 2 killed, 2 wounded; English loss much greater.

1776. May 9 — American 8-gun schooner Wasp, Capt. Charles Alexander, captured English armed vessel Betsey.

1776. June 17— Connecticut State cruiser Defense, Captain Harding, after an all clay fight, captured two English transports, having on board about 300 soldiers of the British 7Ist Regiment; their major (Menzies) was among the killed.

1776 July — On this day England had on the North American coast 78 warships, mounting 2,078 guns. The American navy at the same time consisted of 25 warsnips, 422 guns. Of these ships only six were built for war purposes.

1776. Sept. 1 — C,apt. John Paul Jones, in command of the 12-gun cruiser Providence, escaped from 28-gun English frigate Sokboy, by an extraordinary manoeuvre.

1776. Oct. 11 — First battle of Lake Champlain. The American flotilla, of 15 vessels, carrying 88 guns and 700 men, under command of Gen. Benedict Arnold. made a stubborn fight against the English flotilla of 25 vessels. 89 guns and 1,000 men, under Captain Pringle. The American fleet was manned and officered mostly by soldiers, while the English craft were manned by men from the Royal navy. Although the Americans were defeated they inflicted irreparable loss and delay on the enemy.

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