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9 the Peopling of the United States

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9. THE PEOPLING OF THE UNITED STATES. During the first 60 years of the 17th century a substantial beginning of the permanent colonization of the Atlantic sea board had been made. In this work the Eng lish, Dutch and Swedes each played a part, but the chief role had been taken by the En g lish. Their colonization efforts, at first chiefly prompted by commercial reasons, were feeble. The Virginia colony established in 1607, owing to ignorance, the blundering methods followed and the hardships encountered, increased very slowly. In spite of successive reinforcements and the introduction of the family system its population amounted to only about 3,000 after more than 20 years. The religious and political situation in England was more effective in stimulating colonization than commercial in ducements had been. The pioneers of the religious refugees, the Pilgrims, who settled at Plymouth in 1620, after 10 years numbered only some 300. But the triumph of absolutism in church and state led to the great °Puritan Exodus') to New England. During the 11 years that Charles I reigned without a Parlia ment, 1629 to 1640, some 21,000 immigrants came out. With the outbreak of the Civil War in England, however, this emigration ceased. In the meantime there had been a small immi gration to Maryland, which had been founded in 1634, consisting of some English Catholics, but more Protestants, and a constant flow of colonists to Virginia, a considerable proportion of which was of the poorer class. A report _ _ of 1638 states that "scarcely any came but those who are brought in as merchandise to make sale of)) By 1640 its population was esti mated at 7,500. However, the triumph of the Parliamentary forces caused a great Cavalier movement to Virginia, which not only doubled its population in 10 years, but also markedly raised the character and prosperity of the in habitants. By 1660 the total population of the English colonies. is believed to have been up ward of 80,000, about equally divided between New England and the two southern colonies.

Meanwhile in the middle region lying be tween the twogroups of English colonies, the Dutch and the Swedes had planted settlements.

The former had taken possession of the Hudson Valley and the western part of Long Island, the latter had a foothold on the banks of the Delaware. The Swedish colonists were never numerous and after 17 years of precarious ex istence in 1655 their small settlements of 200 or 300 souls passed into the control of the Dutch. The Dutch, more prosperous and pop ulous than the Swedes were much less so than their English neighbors, owing to the narrow policy of the Dutch West India Company, but by 1664 New Netherland had reached a popu lation of 7,000. This, however, was not ex clusively Dutch, for even at that early date the future metropolis was a cosmopolitan city. Some 18 different languages were said to have been spoken in New Amsterdam in 1643, and the English had overrun a considerable part of Long Island. The English government, shortly after the Restoration, jealous of the Dutch, de cided to wrest the middle region from them. This was accomplished in 1664, and while the Dutch population long remained an important element in New York the Anglicizing process at once began. During the period between the Restoration and the English Revolution of 1689 a few colonists came to New England, more to Virginia and Maryland and a beginning of the colonization of the Carolinas was made, but the greatest immigration was to the middle col onies. East and West Jersey were settled — the former by English direct from England or from the Puritan colony of New Haven, the latter by the English Quakers,— and the °Holy Ex periment" in Pennsylvania had made a most prosperous beginning, with its English and Welsh Quakers and a few Germans, the fore runners of the great 18th century migration. By the close of this period the middle colonies numbered about 40,000 inhabitants, or about half as many as New England, while the total population of all the English colonies is be lieved to have been about 200,000, and by 1700 is estimated by De Bow as 262,000.

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