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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27

58 Political Parties
58. Political Parties. A Political Party Has Been Defined By Edmund Burke As As Body Of Men United, For Promoting By Their Joint Endeavors The National Interest, Upon Some Par Ticular Principle Upon Which They Are All Agreed." But This Definition Is Not Adequate For The Political Party Of To-day. ...

59 Foreign Policy
59. Foreign Policy. The Diplomacy, Negotiations And Treaties Of The United States Since The Beginning Of The National Government In 1775 Are Connected With More Than 50 Foreign Governments, Cover A Period Of Over 140 Years And Apply To A Great Number Of Subjects. To Analyze The National Policy Either ...

6 The American Revolution
6. The American Revolution (diplomatic Conditions During The War And The Peace Nego Tiations). Attempts To Enter Into Rela Dims In Some Form With Foreign Powers Are To Be Found In The Very Early Stages Of The Exist Ence Of The United States. In November 1775 Congress Appointed A Committee ...

60 The United States
60. The United States And The European War. When The War Broke Out In The Summer Of 1914, The American People Were Amazed And Surprised; There Were, Of Course, Differences Of Interest And Attention, Some Persons At Once Taking Acute And Ab Sorbing Interest, While Others Passed The Whole Thing ...

7 Articles Of Confederation
7. Articles Of Confederation. On 10 June 1776 The Continental Congress Ap Pointed A Committee To Frame An Instrument Of Government. This Was Entitled The °articles Of Confederation And Perpetual Union.° (see Comfederation, Articles Or). It Was Not Until Five Years Later (1 March 1781) That All Of The States ...

8 The Formation Of
8. The Formation Of State Constitutions. When The Resistance To Great Britain First Began, Independence Was Not The Aim And In Consequence Only Pro Visional Governments Were Established, Tem Porarily To Take The Place Of The English Colonial Governments Which Had One By One Succumbed Or Been Suppressed. Provisional Congresses ...

9 The Peopling Of
9. The Peopling Of The United States. During The First 60 Years Of The 17th Century A Substantial Beginning Of The Permanent Colonization Of The Atlantic Sea Board Had Been Made. In This Work The Eng Lish, Dutch And Swedes Each Played A Part, But The Chief Role Had Been ...

Ations
Ations). In 1919 A New Three-year Building Program Was Laid Before Congress. It Called For 10 Battleships, Six Battle-cruisers, 10 Scout Cruisers And 130 Destroyers, Submarines, Etc. At The Close Of The European War The Navy Had Increased Into A Fighting Organization Of More Than 2,400,000 Tons, Or, If Transports ...

Climatic Conditions Rainfall
Climatic Conditions ; Rainfall. The Wide Range Of Soil, Topography And Climate Give The United States A Rich And Varied Flora. Tropic Species Are Found In Florida, California, Texas, New Mexico And Arizona, Along The Southern Frontier, While Along The Canadian Border Boreal Species Abound. In The Greater Part Of ...

Co 6 Nh Co
Co 6-nh > Co, Occurs In The Urine Of Carnivorous Ani Mals, And In Much Larger Quantities In The Ex Creta Of Birds, Reptiles, Snails And Insects. It May Be Present Either In The Free State Or As Acid Ammonium Or Sodium Salt. It Ousts Nor Mally In The Blood ...

Della Rardesca Ugolino
Ugolino, (della Rardesca), Della Gi-rar-de's'ka, Colint Of Donoratico, Italian Leader: B. Pisa, About 1220; D. There, March 1289. He Was One Of The Ing Ghibellines Of Pisa, But, With The Purpose Of Obtaining Supreme Power In The Pisan Public, Entered Into A Conspiracy With Giovanni Visconti, Head Of The Guelfs. ...

Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott Decision ) . The Result In The North Was The Immediate Supremacy Of The Republican Party, Whose One Idea Was That Slavery Should Not Be Permitted To Expand, But Should Be Limited To The States In Which It Had Prevailed For Years. Lincoln Expyessed The View Of The ...

Etc 1 Boundaries
1. Boundaries, Etc. The Main Por Tion Of The United States Occupies The Middle Part Of North America Extending Approximately From 20' To North Latitude, And From 66° 48' To 124° 32' West Longitude. The Northern Boundary Line Beginning With The Pacific Ocean Is As Follows: The Fixed Line Running ...

Exports By Groups Of
Exports By Groups Of Articles. According To The Boletin Del Ministerio De Hacienda, The Exports By Groups Of Articles For The Years 1914 And 1915 Were As Follows: The Fdreign Trade Of Uruguay Has Been Studied With A View To Ascertaining Also The Percentage Of Each Of The Main Divisions ...

Exposition
Exposition, A Popular Exhibition Of Commercial And Agricul Tural Products Held In Omaha, Neb., From 1 June To 1 Nov. 1898. The Exposition Covered About 200 Acres. There Were Over 20 Buildings Artistically Grouped And Connected By Vine Shaded Arcades; The Main Buildings Alone Hav Ing An Aggregate Floor Space ...

Four Teenth And Fifteenth
38. The Thirteenth, Four Teenth And Fifteenth Amend Ments To The Constitution. These Three Lmendments To The Constitution Are Popularly Known As The War Amendments. This Designation Is Not Without Justification In Their Origin. The Difficulties Involved In Amend Ing The Constitution Are So Great That But For The Conflict ...

Gold Mining Gold Standard
Gold Mining; Gold Standard And Gold Aonticrion). In 1898 There Were Employed Upon The Rand 9,476 Whites And 88,627 Kaffirs. The Attempt To Introduce Chinese Labor Early In The Century Was But Partially Successful. In December 1915 There Were 23,069 Whites And 223,764 Native Negro Workers In The Mines. The ...

International Claims And Disputes
International Claims And Disputes. Naturalization Questions.— The Allegiance Of Individuals Is Transferred By Emigration Fol Lowed By Naturalization. But If The Laws Of Two Countries Prescribing The Conditions Of These Processes Are Not Identical, Since The New Allegiance Involves Protection, Upon The Return Of The Individual To His Country Of ...

James Russell
James Russell. In Spite Of Adverse Criticism, President Polk Never Once Swerved From His Original Line Of Action. Early In 1847 A Second Army Was Sent Out Under Gen. Winfield Scott To Land At Vera Cruz, And To Attack The Capital From The East. The Series Of Mexican Disasters At ...

N J Trenton
Trenton, N. J., City, Capital Of The State, County-seat Of Mercer County, On The Dela Ware River, And On The Delaware And Raritan Canal, On The Philadelphia And Reading And The Pennsylvania Railroads, About 59 Miles South West Of New York City And 29 Miles Northeast Of Philadelphia. It Is ...

N Y Troy
Troy, N. Y., City, County-seat Of Rens Selaer 'county, On The East Bank Of The Hud Son, 150 Miles North Of New York, 191 Miles West Of Boston, 235 Miles South Of Montreal, Canada, And 296 Miles East Of Buffalo. It Is At The Head Of Tidewater Navigation On The ...

Ohn B Mcdonnell
Ohn B. Mcdonnell, Editorial Itaff Of The Americana. Geology.• There Is Great Diversity In The Geology Of The Country, A Diversity That Extends To The Constituent Rock Formations, Their Distri Bution, Structural Arrangements And Contained Mineral Deposits. Every Important Rock System Is Represented In Its Stratigraphy By One Or More ...

Plane Trigonometry
Plane Trigonometry. Conventions And Definitions.— Any Two Perpendicular Lines, As X'ox And Yoy', Divide The Unbounded Plane Into Four Congruent Por Tions, Called Quadrants, Which Hang Together About The Origin 0 And Of Which Xoy . Yox', X'oy' And Y'ox, Taken In Order, Are Known Respectively As The 1st, 2d, ...

Posing Machines
Posing Machines. Type-founding Begins With Designing The Let Ters, Which Are Drawn To A Very Large Scale. Permanent Dies Are Made From These Draw Ings And These Dies Are Used To Guide The Cut Ters Of A Punch-cutting Machine, Which Form Characters Or Letters In Steel That Is Afterward Hardened. ...

Principal Events Of The
Principal Events Of The Twelfth Century. 1105. Henry I Becomes King Of England. Abelard Opens A School Of Rhetoric At Paris. Haloise Becomes His Pupil. 1106. Henry V Is Crowned Roman Emperor Of Germany. 1114. The Marriage Of Matilda, Daughter Of Henry I Of England, To Henry V Roman Emperor. ...

Principal Events Of The_2
Principal Events Of The Twentieth Century. 1901. 22 January Queen Victoria Of The British Empire Dies. Edward Vii Proclaimed King And Emperor. R, ,s. Ident Mckinley Shot 6 September. Died 14 September. Theodore Roosevelt. Vice-president, Becomes Chief Executive Of The United States. Pan-american Exposition At Buffalo. Pan-american Congress In The ...

Ruggiero Da Brugi A
Bruxelles, Ruggiero Da Brugi A, Maestro Rogel And Roger De La Pasture) , Flemish Painter: B. Tournay, Belgium, About 1400; D. Brussels, 16 June 1464. He Was The Pupil Of The Painter Robert Campin In Tournay (1427), And Five Years Later Was Made Master Of The Guild Of Saint Luke ...

Russia
Russia ; Cialicia ; Poland. The Historical Life Of The Ukrai Nian Nation Has Differed Entirely From That Of The Russians Or The Poles. Its Roots Lie In The Ancient Kingdom Of Kiev, Called °old Russia* In The History Books, And Which Formed A State Erected By The Southern Group ...

Or Apiaceze Umbelifers
Umbelifers, Or Apiaceze, A Family Of Herbs And A Few Shrubs Popularly Known As The Parsley Family. The Species, Of Which About 1,500 Have Been Described And Grouped In Ap Proximately 200 Genera, Are Most Abundant In The North Temperate And Arctic Zones. Many Species Are Also Characteristic Of High ...

Or Ascenao Trinidad
Trinidad, Or Ascenao, A Small Unin Habited Rocky Island In The Atlantic, In Lat. 31' S., Long. 29° 20' W., About 700 Miles East Of Brazil. Originally Discovered By The Portu Guese, It Had Never Been Claimed Or Made Use Of Till 1700, When The Famous English Astrono Mer, Halley, ...

Or Azariah Uzziah
Uzziah, Or Azariah, King Of Judah (792-740 A.c.). Sec Azariah. The English Alphabet, The 22d Letter And The 17th Consonant. V And U Were Originally One And Used Indis Criminately For The Representation Of The Vowel A And The Consonant V Or W. The Form V Was Derived By The ...

Or Carbamide Urea
Urea, Or Carbamide, Co Is \ Nh; Physiologically Important Compound, Being One Of The Chief Nitrogenous Decomposition Products Of Animal Metabolism. It Appears In Large Quantities In The Urine Of Carnivora; The Amount Excreted By An Adult Human Being Is About One Ounce In 24 Hours. Urea Is Also Present ...

Or Council Of The
Vatican Council, Or Council Of The Vatican, The Only Plenary Council Of The Roman Catholic Church Held Since The Council Of Trent In 1563. In June 1867 Cardi Nal Caterine Sent A Circular Letter To The 500 Bishops Present In Rome At The Celebration Of The 18th Centenary Of The ...

Or Enteric Fever Typhoid
Typhoid Fever, Or Enteric Fever, A Specific Continued Fever Of Long Du Ration And Communicable, Due To The Bacillus Typhosus Or Eberth's Bacillus. It Is Usually Attended With Diarrhcea,sometimes With An Eruption And Is Characterized By Inflammation And Ulceration Of Pcyer's Patches (q.v.) In The Small Intestine, By Enlargement Of ...

Or Flukes Trematoda
Trematoda, Or Flukes, A Promi Nent Class Of The Branch Or Phylum Plathel Minthes Of Consistently Parasitic Habit. The Simple Body, The Presence Of An Alimentary Canal And Even Of Some Special Sense Organs Together With The Occurrence In Most Cases Of Free Living Stages In Development Shows That The ...

Or Life Among The
Uncle Tom's Cabin, Or Life Among The Lowly, A Novel By Harriet Beecher Stowe (q.v.), The Most Important Con Tribution Of The Emancipation Movement To American Literature, First Appeared As A Serial From 1 June 1851 To April 1852 In The National Era, An Anti-slavery Newspaper Published At Washington, D. ...

Or Metempsychosis Transmigration Of
Transmigration Of The Soul, Or Metempsychosis, The Belief Of Many Races And Tribes At All Times, To The Effect That The Soul After The Death Of The Body Passes Into The Bodies Of The Lower Animals Or Other Human Bodies, Or, It May Be, Of Plants Or In Animate Objects. ...

Or Middle Tennessee Tullahoma
Tullahoma, Or Middle Tennessee, Campaign. When General Bragg After The Battle Of Stone River Or Mur Freesboro (q.v.) Fell Back From Murfreesboro He Designed To Hold The Line Of Elk River, But Was Directed To Hold That Of Duck River, North Of Which He Disposed His Forces; His Infantry Front ...

Or Tnt Trinitrotoluene
Trinitrotoluene, Or Tnt, Cili.(ch8) (no,),, A High Explosive, The Final Nitration Product Of Toluene, Is Obtained By The Energetic Treatment Of This Hydrocarbon With Strong Nitric Acid In The Presence Of Concen Trated Sulphuric Acid. The Reaction Takes Place In Three Stages, With The Formation Of Mono Nitrotoluene And Dinitrotoluene ...

Or Tree Toad Tree Frog
Tree-frog, Or Tree-toad, A Frog Of The Family Hyhda. Distinguished From Com Mon Frogs (ransda) By Having The Ends Of The Fingers And Toes Dilated Into Flattened Discs Or Suckers, Which Enable Them To Lead Their Peculiar Arboreal Life. They Are Of More Elegant Form, Smaller Size, Brighter Colors And ...

Or Ukrainia Ukraine
Ukraine, Or Ukrainia (aborder Land" Or ((march-land"), A Great Undetermined Region In Eastern Europe, Embracing Most Of The Southern Part Of Russia In Europe, East Galicia, Northwest Bukovina And Northeast Hungary. The Territory May Be Regarded As A Geographic Unit Standing On Ari Equal 'basis With The Regions Known As ...

Or Union Jack Union
Union Flag, Or Union Jack, The National Flag Of Great Britain And Ireland, Is A Composite Of The Prominent Features Of The Flags Of England, Scotland And Ireland. The First Union Flag Was Made Upon The Accession Of James I, And From The Fact That That Sov Ereign Signed Himself ...

Or Urochorda Tunicata
Tunicata, Or Urochorda, A Class Of Animals Of The Phylum Chordata (q.v.), Commonly Represented By The Ascidians (q.v.) Formerly Much Misunderstood. Since Kowa Lewsky's Description In 1866 Of The Development Of An Ascidian, It Has Been Clear That These Animals, Together With All The Other Tunicates, Must Be Associated In ...

Or Wave Theory Of
Undulatory Theory Of Light, Or Wave Theory Of Light, The Theory Which Accounts For The Phenomena Of Light And Radiant Heat, By Interpreting Them As The Re Sults Of Vibratory Movements Or Undulations, In An All-pervading Medium Called The Aether" (q.v.). There Are Many Optical Phenomena Which Admit Of A ...

Or The Ottoman Em
Turkey, Or The Ottoman Em Pire (memalik I Osuanie), An Empire Con Sisting Of Territory In The Peninsula Of Asia Minor And Southwestern Asia, And Also A Portion Of Southeastern Europe In The Vila Yets Of Adrianople, Chatalja And Constan Tinople, And In Asia, Arabia, Syria, Pales Tine, Mesopotamia And ...