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Ations

tons, guns, total, tonnage, type, vessels and cruisers

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ATIONS). In 1919 a new three-year building program was laid before Congress. It called for 10 battleships, six battle-cruisers, 10 scout cruisers and 130 destroyers, submarines, etc.

At the close of the European War the navy had increased into a fighting organization of more than 2,400,000 tons, or, if transports under naval control are added, of well over 3,000,000 tons.

In 1917 and 1918 three superdreadnoughts, the largest afloat, were added; more than 100 destroyers were built; two superdreadnoughts to be armed with 16-inch guns were completed in 1919, while five great battle-cruisers and a fleet of fast scout cruisers were being con structed. In 1919 also was inaugurated the policy of expanding the navy into two great fleets one in the Atlantic and the other in the Pacific. Each fleet contains two divisions of dreadnoughts, with two divisions of predread noughts held in reserve in each ocean, about 100 destroyers. These fleets are brought to gether each year for joint battle exercises under a single command. The Panama Canal makes possible the holding of joint manoeuvres when ever they are necessary. Many of the newer type of dreadnoughts and other vessels are oil-burners. The new ships under construction are all of the oil-burning type.

The dreadnoughts now number 23 and of these 17 are in commission and two are near ing completion. In the following table are given the names and tonnage of the dread noughts of the American navy: In 1919 there were begun three 42,000-ton' dreadnoughts, each mounting 12 16-inch guns. The Colorado, Washington and West Virginia were the first American vessels to mount guns. There is a main battery of eight on each vessel. The New Mexico, Idaho and Missis sippi mount each 12 14-inch rifles. The Cali fornia and Tennessee were the last vessels of the first line of the navy to mount guns of the 14-inch type; each vessel carries 12 guns of that calibre. The Pennsylvania and Arizona each mount 12 14-inch guns; the New York, Texas, Nevada and Oklahoma mount each 10 14-inch guns; the Arkansas and Wyoming 12 12-inch; the Delaware, Florida, Utah and North Da kota 10 12-inch; and the Michigan. and South Carolina each hay; eight guns of 12-inch calibre. The oil-burners of the present fleet are the New Mexico, Mississippi, Idaho, Pennsylvania, Arizona, Nevada and Oklahoma. The.

battleships which furnish the coast reserve for the new fleets are: Alabama 11,552 tons; necticut, 16,000 tons; Georgia, 14,948; Illinois, 11,552 tons; Indiana, 10,228; Iowa, 11,346 tons; Kansas, 16,000 tons; Kearsarge, 11,250 tons; Kentucky, 11,520 tons; Louisiana, 16,000 tons; Maine, 12,500 tons; Massachusetts, 10,228 tons; Minnesota, 16,000 tons; Missouri, 12,500 tons; Nebraska, 14,948 tons; New Hampshire, 16,000 tons; New Jersey, 14,948 tons; Ohio, 12,500 tons; Oregon, 10,288 tons; Rhode Island, 14,948 tons; Vermont, 16,000 tons; Virginia, 14,948 tons; Wisconsin, 11,552 tons, making a total tonnage of this type of 309,148.

The tonnage of the navy as it now (1919) stands is As follows: The battle-cruisers, which like the super dreadnoughts, carry 16-inch guns, are among and speediest vessels of their type. They are the Constellation, Constitution, Lex ington, Ranger and Saratoga, and one other cruiser; each has a displacement of 35,236 tons, making a total of 211,416 tons for this In the late war no vessel played a more im portant part than the fast-going modern de stroyer, the ship that conquered the sub marine. America's new fleet of destroyers each bears the name of a naval hero of other days. The average displacement is 1,165 tons for this class of vessel, of which the navy has 192, with a total tonnage of 208,998. There are 15 of the older type of destroyers of 430 tons average displacement, a total of 6,275 tons. There are 17 torpedo boats of from 142 to 280 tons, a total of 3,150 tons. Armored cruisers have an aggregate tonnage of 111,900; there are eight vessels of this type of about 14,500 tons each. First class cruisers are the Brooklyn, Charleston, Rochester and Saint Louis, of about 9,700 tons each The Chicago, Columbia, Minneapolis and Olympia are second class cruisers, with an aggregate tonnage of 25,065. There are 15 third class cruisers of from 2,072 to 3,430 tons, with an aggregate of 47,820 tons. In addition there are 38 gunboats of from 190 to 1,500 tons, with a total ton nage for the class of 36,055 tons. There are 148 submarines, of which about 100 are new vessels of the improved °RD and types. The total tonnage of the new sub marine fleet approximates 118,000.

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