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Etc 1 Boundaries

coast, miles, north, boundary, thence, line, pacific and atlantic

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1. BOUNDARIES, ETC. The main por tion of the United States occupies the middle part of North America extending approximately from 20' to north latitude, and from 66° 48' to 124° 32' west longitude. The northern boundary line beginning with the Pacific Ocean is as follows: The fixed line running about southeast in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, mid way between the State of Washington and Vancouver Island, to Puget Sound, then north, and northeast, to the Strait of Georgia, then northwest to the 49th parallel; from thence east to the Lake of the Woods; thence along the southern coast of the Lake of the Woods, continuing along Rainy River, through the mid dle of Rainy Lake, and several other lakes which are expansions of Rainy River. to Lake Superior, north on the northwestern coast of Lake Superior to Port Arthur. From Port Arthur the line continues east through the Great Lakes (except Michigan) and the rivers or straits connecting them, to the Saint Law rence River; thence about midway to the 45th parallel; thence along the 45th parallel east to Hall's Stream; thence north by east, along Hall's Stream nearly •to the 46th parallel; then an irregular highland boundary to the Maine State line; thence along highland lines and the southwest branch of the Saint John River to 45'; thence north 47° 20'; thence northwest to the extreme northerly boundary of Maine. From this point the boundary is alohg several small lakes and streams tributary to the Saint John; thence along the Saint John to the New Brunswick boundary and south in a straight line to the head of Saint Croix River; thence along the Saint Croix River, Grand Lakes and through Passamaquoddy Bay to the Atlantic Ocean. The southern boundary line between the United States and Mexico is as follows: Beginning at the point on the Pacific Coast at 32° it extends east to the Colorado River, south 20 miles along the Colorado, southeast to 31° 20' north latitude and 111° west longitude, east along the line of 31° 20' for 160 miles; thence north to latitude 31° 47'; thence east to the Rio Grande, and along the Rio Grande southeast, east and southwest to the Gulf of Mexico. The remaining portion of the southern boundary is defined by the northern and eastern shore line of the Gulf of Mexico; the eastern boundary by the Atlantic Ocean and the west ern boundary by the Pacific Ocean. The Canadian boundary line is 3,900 miles long; the Mexican boundary line is 1,975 miles long, and the total ocean, lake and river boundary is 10,758 miles. The greatest length, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, is 3,100 miles and north and south 1,780 miles. Alaska (q.v.), in the

northern part of North America; Hawaii (q.v.), in the Pacific Ocean; Porto Rico (q.v.) and the Virgin Islands in the Atlantic Ocean; the Philippines (q.v.), and several small islands in the Pacific (parts of the eastern hemisphere), are all included within the United States. The area of the main portion of the United States is 3,026,789 square miles. The area of Alaska is 590884 square miles; of the Philippines 115, 026; Porto Rico, 3,604; Hawaii, 6,449; Panama Canal Zone (leased), 436; Virgin Islands, 149; Tutuila and Samoa, 55; Guam, 210; making a total of 3,743,518 square miles.

Coast The coast line is comeara tively regular; there are no large indentations, but the largest and most numerous are on the Atlantic Coast. The principal arms of the sea on the Atlantic are Chesapeake, Delaware, New York, Massachusetts and Cape Cod bays, and Long Island, Albemarle and Pamlico sounds. On the coast of the Gulf of Mexico are Mobile, Galveston and Tampa bays; and on the Pacific Coast San Francisco Bay, Bay of Monterey, Puget Sound and Santa Barbara and San Pedro channels. (For coast lines of Alaska and the island possessions see articles 011 ALASKA; GUAM; HAWAII; PANAMA CANAL; SAMOA; VIRGIN ISLANDS, etc.). There are no large islands off the coast of the main portion of the United States. Long Island (q.v.) is the largest; the next important are the islands off the northeast Atlantic Coast and the Santa Barbara (q.v.) group off the south west Pacific Coast. Florida in the southeast is the largest peninsula. There are more good harbors on the Atlantic Coast than on the Pacific or Gulf coasts. The Atlantic Coast differs widely in character in the north and south. In Maine, New Hampshire and north ern Massachusetts it is very rocky, with rocky headlands jutting far into the sea and with numerous rocky islets. From Boston southward the coast is low and sandy, with numerous sandbars, back of which are swamps and lagoons. The latter is especially true of the North Carolina and Virginia coasts. The Dis mal Swamp is the largest depression of this kind. The rivers of this coast have tidal estuaries. The Gulf Coast is also low and sandy and in places extremely dangerous to navigation because of sandbars. The character of the Pacific Coast is very simple, there being an almost straight unbroken front to the sea throughout its length. With its indentations the Atlantic Coast line has an estimated total length of 12,350 miles; the Gulf Coast, 5,725 miles, and the Pacific Coast, 3,40 miles.

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