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railway, line, arthur and miles

EXPOSITION, a popular exhibition of commercial and agricul tural products held in Omaha, Neb., from 1 June to 1 Nov. 1898. The exposition covered about 200 acres. There were over 20 buildings artistically grouped and connected by vine shaded arcades; the main buildings alone hav ing an aggregate floor space of 500,000 square feet, exclusive of 200,000 square feet of gallery space. The exposition was a great success, in dustrially and financially, the total number of visitors being 2,613,374, and the total cash re ceipts $1,761,364.18, giving a surplus of $400,000.

(trans si-beri-an) RAILWAY, an extensive railroad system of Russia, between Petrograd, Port Arthur (q.v.) and Vladivostok (q.v.), a distance of 5,500 miles across both European and Asiatic Russia, The government of the tsar as far back as 1870 be gan to plan this great railway enterprise, realiz ing the possibilities of developing her vast ter ritory to the eastward. Beginning at Moscow the work of building the railroad was rapidly extended and Orenburg was reached in 1877. In 1880 the bridge over the Volga was built and the section connecting the Volga and Obi River basins was begun. In May 1891 the first work on the real Trans-Siberian Railway was begun. From that date the railway was steadily pushed forward. In perfecting this vast enterprise Rus sia sent commissioners to the United States to study the American railway systems. She im

ported Italian workmen who had helped to build the Simplon and Saint Gotthard tunnels for the construction work. She built towns in the desert and transported whole families by the thousand to them for the work. Finally the line of track extended from her ancient cap ital of Moscow in the West to her newest stronghold, Port Arthur, in the East, a direct line of communication—save only for one piece, the Lake of Baikal. This lake is large and frozen nearly half the year. At first it was traversed by boats, but in 1905 a line of rail was laid around its southern end. The line as a single-track railway was completed in 1902. It is 5,500 miles long and cost $175,000,000. The entire system from Moscow to Port Arthur was built cheaply, with light rails and wooden bridges, and it was impossible to maintain any thing like a desirable speed. The schedule time for passenger trains was long (131/4 miles an hour) for the through express trains. During the Russo-Japanese War it became so apparent that the road was wholly inadequate to the needs of the country that constant improve ments of roadway and rolling stock were in augurated.