Type-founding begins with designing the let ters, which are drawn to a very large scale. Permanent dies are made from these draw ings and these dies are used to guide the cut ters of a punch-cutting machine, which form characters or letters in steel that is afterward hardened. These punches look like type but have usually a long shank. They are used to drive into softer metal to form a matrix, which matrix is later to form one erd of a mold in which the type is cast. A mold of a given size may be used to cast any type of that size, if the appropriate matrix of the desired letter is introduced. The form of a matrix is that of a letter or printed character, but the type itself is a reverse form. The type proper is made rectangular and is nicked on the frost or lower side to assist the' compositor in placing it in correct position. The position of the nick or number of nicks also serves to distinguish the type of different fonts of the same size. There is usually a groove across the foot to take out any irregularity in breaking off from the sprue; also a pin-mark on one side. The top or printing surface of the type is called the •face° and the beveled side of this face is the 'beard,' the beveling permitting easy with drawal from the matrix. When a type-face is in high relief it is said to have a deep °counter?) The horizontal hair-lines, which are conspicuous on the H, F, M, etc., are termed °serifs.) A part that hangs over the body, as in some f's and j's, is a *kern.* Blank types, below type high, are called °quadrats° or but when less than an n in width are termed °spaces.* The °body° of a type is the size of the shank and the standard sizes are measured by °points.* (See PRINTING). A point is one seventy-second of an inch, and 12-point and •pica° are now identical. The point and the pica are the units of measurement,. together with the m. This m is spelled and is assumed to be square in body, as wide as it is high. One thousand ems is the unit by which type composition is paid. The price of type com position has varied all the way between 25 cents and $1 ner thousand ems.
Type that is broad for its height is termed 'fat' and when narrow for its height is A font or °fount° of type is a complete assort ment of one kind. As more e's are used than any other letter, these are the most numerous in a font, being followed by t, a, o, i, n, etc. An ordinary font contains capitals, lower case, figures, points, spaces and quads and some signs or reference marks, as $, &,*. It may also con tain italic, small caps, fraction-marks, ac cented letters, logotypes, etc. The printer's case is usually made as a pair, the lower case let ters, figures, points and spaces being in the lower case of the pair and the capitals and small capitals and signs, etc., in the upper case. Hence capitals are sometimes called °upper case.' The first English type-founder of ability was John Day (1522-84), who made type only for his own printing office. Benjamin Sympson (1597), of London, was the first English founder to make type for the printing trade. He was followed byJohn Grismand, Thomas Wright, Arthur Nichols and Alexander Fifield. Joseph Moxon was the most distinguished of the early English founders, and flourished from 1659 to 1683. He published the first hook which describes type-founding, (Mechanick Exercises) (1683), a reprint of which may be found in many large libraries. William Caslon (1692-1766), of London, was the most con spicuous founder of the 18th century and laid the designs of some of the best modern faces. After him came John Baskerville, Alex
ander Wilson, Thomas Cottrell, Joseph Fry, Joseph Jackson, Robert and William Martin, Vincent Figgins, William Miller, Anthony Bessemer, all of Great Britain. In the United States, Abel Buell, of Connecticut, is men tioned by De Vinne as being probably the first founder, in 1769. The early founders were also stereotypers. It was in 1772 that Christopher Sauer (or Sower) established a type-foundry at Germantown. Benjamin Franklin established his Philadelphia printing office with type bought of P. S. Fournier, the French founder who is credited with originating the point system. Later Franklin cast his own type in a small way. John Baine, of Glasgow, came to Phila delphia, in 1875, and started a foundry. Adam G. Moppa established the first foundry in New York about 1791, but later went to work for Binny and Ronaldson, who began type founding in Philadelphia in 1796. In 1833 this was taken over by Johnson and Smith and finally became the well-known house of MatKellar, Smith and Jordan. White and Wing started in Hartford in 1804, but discon tinued. White going to New York in 1810. In 1854 White and Company sold out to Farmer, Little and Company. Robert Lothian made type in a small way in New York early in the 19th century. James Conner established himself originally as a stereotyper in New York in 1827 and later took up type-founding. William Hagar's foundry was started in New York in 1840. David Bruce (1770-1857), followed by George Bruce and David Bruce, Jr., conducted a type-foundry in New York from 1806 until 1890. David Bruce, Sr., invented the *patent block* for stereotypes and David Bruce, Jr., the first real type-casting machine. James Lind say and Peter C. Cortelyou were associated with the Bruces. Samuel N. Dickinson and Michael Dalton were the most conspicuous Boston founders in the last century. The Cin cinnati type-foundry was established in 1817, the Saint Louis foundry in 1840. Faulkner and Son established a foundry in San Francisco in 1866 and Painter and Son in 1868. Collins and McLeester began in Philadelphia in 1853, Barn hart Brothers and Spindler were established in Chicago in 1878 and later in Saint Louis, Omaha, Kansas City and Saint Paul. Marder, Luse and Company started in Chicago in 1855 and later they had a foundry in San Francisco. Shraubstadter and Saint John started the Cen tral Type Foundry in Saint Louis in 1875; the Cleveland foundry was established in 1879. The multiplication of type-foundries in the United States entailed great duplication of costs in producing new type faces. These and other conditions induced the formation in 1892 of the American Type Founders Company, which took over 23 of the leading firms and corpora tions in type-founding in America. This has been commonly referred to as the Type Trust, but it never monopolized the business and inde pendent foundries have 1been maintained in most large cities. Early in the 20th century the widespread use of the Linotype machine took away from the type-foundries a large part of the trade that would otherwise have existed in individual type. Then the monotype and sev eral type-casting machines came into use in large printeries, which now cast a great deal of their own type. The business of the type feundries, thus reduced, has changed arid they now handle a great variety of printers' sup plies and small mechanism. Consult Pasko, 'Dictionary of American Printing' (1892) ; De Vinne, Plain Printing Types' (1900).