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Principal Events of the Twelfth Century 1105

england, henry, richard, france, death and germany

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY.

1105. Henry I becomes King of England. Abelard opens a school of rhetoric at Paris. Haloise becomes his pupil. 1106. Henry V is crowned Roman emperor of Germany. 1114. The marriage of Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, to Henry V Roman emperor.

1115. Saint Bernard founds Clairvaux Abbey.

1118. Rise of the Knights Templars. By submission to the king the commons of France gain protection from the nobles. Villanege abolished.

1122. Abelard founds the monastery of the Paraclete of which his wife, Heloise, becomes superior.

1127. The Southern Sung dynasty established in China and exists under nine emperors until 1280.

1130. Creation of the kingdom of Naples and Sicily. 1133. Count Roger of Normandy invades Sicily.

1135. Stephen becomes king of England.

1138. Civil war in England.

1139. Portugal becomes a kingdom.

1141. Papal interdict laid on France.

1142. Death of Abelard.

1146. Saint Bernard preaches the Second Crusade. Roger of Normandy and Sicily invades Greece.

1152. The divorce of Louis VII of France from Eleanor. gives Guienne. Poitou, etc.. to Henry II of England, who marries her, and wars ensue. The Troubadours Sourish. The Albigensian persecutions begin.

1153. Death of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux.

1154. The Plantagenet& assume power in England. 1155. Execution at Rome of Arnold of Brescia.

1156. Roman law and the Catholic religion definitely estab lished in Germany.

1161. Thomas a Becket becomes archbishop of. Canterbury. 1162. Milan is destroyed by Barbarossa.

1164. Death of Helolse.

1169. Invasion of Ireland by Henry II of England.

1170. Archbishop a Becket of Canterbury assassinated.

1176. Barbarossa of Germany leads his fifth expedition into Italy and is defeated by the Lombards at The Peace of Constance is concluded. The first Lon): bard League is inaugurated.

1180. Philip II reigns over France. Summons John of England as a vassal.

1187. Saladin captures Jerusalem. The Third Crusade is preached.

1189. Circuit of justice introduced in England. Death of Henry H. Richard I of England, Barbarous, emperor of Germany, and Philip Augustus of France join the Third Crusade.

1190. Defeat and death by drowning of Barbarossa. Siege and capture of Acre by French and English Crusaders. Quarrel between Richard and Philip, and withdrawal of the French from the Crusade.

1191. Saladin repulses all attacks on Jerusalem. Concludes a peace with Richard, giving Christians free access to all the holy places of Jerusalem.

1192. Capture and imprisonment of Richard I—Coeur de Lion—by IV of Germany.

1194. Release of Richard by ransom.

1195. Several thousands of Europeans sacrificed in the Crusades. Return of the survivors.

1199. Richard I of England dies.

Epiphany (the 6th of January), which is the 12th day from Christmas. This was formerly (as it still is) a day of great festivity and the evening of the day was the occasion of observing many curious cus toms. One of the most widespread of these was the 'baking of a cake (in England called twelfth-cake) with a bean in it, and dividing the cake among the partakers of the feast. Whoever got the piece with the bean in it was regarded as king for the remainder of the day, in France for the whole of the year. This cus tom is supposed to have been derived from that which prevailed among the Roman children at the end of the Saturnalia, of drawing lots with beans to see who should be king. In Italy it is customary to give presents to children on this day.