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Principal Events of the Twentieth Century 1901 22

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PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.

1901. 22 January Queen Victoria of the British Empire dies. Edward VII proclaimed king and emperor. R, ,s. ident McKinley shot 6 September. died 14 September. Theodore Roosevelt. Vice-President, becomes chief executive of the United States. Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo. Pan-American Congress in the city of Mexico. Hague court of international arbitration instituted. Australia extends the suffrage to women.

1902. Anglo-Japanese alliance to preserve the integrity of China and Korea. The first congress of the republic of Cuba assembles in Havana. Peace treaty signed be tween the Boers and the British. The California Pious fund controversy with Mexico arbitrated by The Hague tribunal. The Samoan dispute decided in favor of Germany by King Oscar of Sweden. Reciprocity treaty established between Newfoundland and the United States.

1903. Panama Canal Treaty rejected by Colombia. State of Panama secedes, proclaims a republic and concludes Isthmian Canal Treaty with the United States. Assassi nation of the king and queen of Serbia. Death of Pope Leo XIII; election of Pope Pius X. Alaskan boundary dispute decided in favor of the United States. Russia disregards Japan's representations over encroachments in Manchuria.

1904. Russo-Japanese War. Anglo-French treaty settles Newfoundland, African and other disputes. British expedition into Tibet reaches Lhasa. Louisiana Pur chase Exposition at Saint Louis.

1905. Defeat of the Russian army and navy. Treaty of Portsmouth. N. H., ands Russo-Japanese War. Anglo Jaosnese treaty of alliance renewed. Parcels post treaty effected between the United States and Great Britain. Norway separates from Sweden. Wright brothers in vent the aeroplane.

1906. Pan-American conference at Rio Janeiro. Earth quake and fire destroys two-thirds of San Francisco. einWoglio over Morocco settled by the Algeciras conference. First Douma or Parliament opened in Russia in May. dissolved in July. Parliament opened in Persia. End of Dreyfus case in France. Separation of church and state in France. Norway independent elects Haakon VII king. China restricts the opium traffic. War between Central American republics.

1907. Second Russian Douma or Parliament lasts from March to June. In Finland, under full woman suffrage laws, 19 women are elected to the Diet. New Parliament opens in the Transvaal. Hostile demonstrations against British rule in India. In China, reform movement over throws old educational and military systems. Universal suffrage in Austria strengthens the Socialist party. Women suffragists in England make violent demon strations. The second Hague conference meets. Japa nese laborers excluded by law from the United States except by passport. Interstate Commerce Commission in the United States prosecutes corporations for viola tion of the anti-trust laws. Tercentennial celebration of the settlement of Jamestown, Va.

1908. United States Congress remits $13,000 000 of Chinese Boxer indemnity. United States and Japan agree on Pacific Ocean affairs. United States severs diplomatic relations with Venezuela. King and crown prince of Portugal assassinated. Belgium annexes Kongo. Bul garia declares independence. Sultan of Turkey restores tke Constitution. The powers unite to prevent war.

1909. Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina. Peary reaches the North Pole. Hudson-Fulton celebration at New York.

1910. King Edward VII of England dies; George V succeeds. South Africa union is proclaimed. Arizona and New Mexico admitted to statehood. Pan-American con ference meets at Buenos Aires. Aerial navigation makes great progress.

1911. Revolution in Mexico. President Diaz resigns and sails for Europe. Francisco I. Madero elected President. Chinese National Assembly is dissolved. The republic of Portugal is recognized by the leading powers. War between Italy and Turkey in Tripoli. George V king of England, crowned emperor of India at Delhi. Amundsen reaches the South Pole 16 December.

1912. China, the oldest of monarchies, becomes a republic 12 February. Italy annexes Tripoli 23 February but war continues with Turkey until 18 October and the signing of the Treaty of Ouchy. The Balkan League de clares war on Turkey. 30 September and the first Balkan War begins.

1913. Parcel post system established in the United States. War of the Balkan allies against Turkey ended by the Treaty of London 30 May. The second Balkan War, between the BalkanAllies, bellies 29 June, and is ended 10 August by the Treaty of Bucharest. President of Salvador assassinated. Ex-President Madero of Mexico assassinated. Woman suffrage introduced in Hungary.

The first Parliament of China assembles. The burg semi-centennial celebration. Dedication of the palace of peace at The Hague.

1914. Direct wireless communication established between Germany and the United States. Treaties of arbitration ratified by the United States Senate with Great Britain. Norway, Sweden, Switaerland, Portugal, Spain, Italy and Japan. Formal opening of the Kiel Canal. nation of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria and his wife. Declaration of war by Austria against Serbia. The World War begins.

1915-1916. The World War.

1917. 2 April. The United States declares war against the illegal acts of the German government and joins the Entente Allies to end the conflict.

1918. Germany sues for peace and hostilities cease 11 vember. See WAR, EUROPEAN, and related operations. 1919. Theodore Roosevelt dies suddenly 6 January. Franco American-Anglo treaty of alliance defends France from unprovoked attack by Germany. Peace treaty, signed at Versailles 28 June 1919, reconstructs Europe and provides for a league of nations against war. Trans Atlantic flights made by aeroplanes and dirigible balloons.