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blood, tion and injection

TRANSFUSION, in medicine, the opera tion of transferring blood (defribrinated) from a receptacle to the vein of a patient — indirect or mediate transfusion; the transmission of blood from the vein of the giver to that of the patient—direct or immediate transfusion; also the intravenous or subcutaneous introduction into the body of any substance, as saline solu tion, etc. The transfusion of blood from the veins of one living animal to those of another, or from those of a man or one of the lower animals into a man, is a very old operation, hav ing been first performed in 1492. Although it has been used many times with success in re storing the vigor of exhausted subjects, it has frequently failed, owing to the injection of air, the too rapid distention of the heart, phlebitis, thrombosis and embolism. Blood-transfusion has been mainly used in cases of exhaustion from hemorrhages. In recent years the tend ency medical practitioners has been to substitute the injection of normal for that of blood. It seems to be proved that

ufor efficiency. freedom from danger and ease of administration the subcutaneous injection of normal salt-solution. six drams of salt to one gallon sterilized water, at a temperature of from 110° to 120° F., excels any and all things that have ever been used to relieve those suffering from shock and from the effects of hemorrhage, and as an eliminant in septic and toxic conditions.a The possible dangers at tending the intravenous injection of normal salt-solution are those of blood-transfusion; but ((when life is almost extinct and the patient's vitality so low that the probability of absorp tion from the subcutaneous spaces is slight, or where the tissues are oedematous, then the solu tion should be injected into a vein.))