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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27

Siam
Siam. Cuba And The Spanish War.—the Rela Tions Of The United States With Cuba Have Been Impressed With A Sense Of The Latter's Geographi Cal Importance, Jealousy Of Its Control By Any Other State Than Spain And A Desire For Undis Turbed Trade And Settled Government. To Cuba, Monroe's Declaration ...

Sity Brown Universitycolumbia
Sity ; Brown University; Columbia Uni Versity; Cornell University; Johns Hopkins University; Leland Stanford Junior Uni Versity; University Of Chicago. Entrance Requirements.— The Completion Of A Standard Four-year High-school Course Is Now The Announced Fundamental Basis Of Admis Sion To The Typical American University. In Deed, Practically All Institutions Which ...

Spherical Trigonometry
Spherical Trigonometry. A Spherical Triangle Is The Figure Bounded By Three Arcs (of Great Circles) On The Surface Of A Sphere. Spherical Trigonometry Has For Its Principal Problem That Of Determining The Numerical Values Of The Three Remaining Parts Of A Spherical Triangle When Three Parts Are Given. This Note ...

States Impeachments
States- Impeachments) And The Tenure Of Office Act Was Passed To Limit His Power Of Re Moval. His Power, Also, As Commander-in Chief Of The Army And His Power Of Clemency Were Abridged And A Law Was Passed Requiring The New Congress To Meet On 4 March Follow Ing. In ...

Stratford Constanti Nople Crimean
Hamid Ii; Armenia; Balkan League; Bal Kan Wars; Canning, Stratford; Constanti Nople ; Crimean War; Eastern Question; Hejaz ; Mesopotamia; Palestine; Russo Turkish War; Syria; Turco-italian War; Turkish Language; Turkish Literature. Bibliography.—abhott, G. F., 'turkey, Greece And The Great Powers' (london 1917) ; Azoury, N., 'le Revell De La Nation ...

The Fiftfentr Amendment
The Fiftf.entr Amendment. Sscrtom I. The Right Of Citizens Of The United States To Vote Shall Not Be Denied Or Abridged By The United States, Or By Any State, On Account Of Race, Color, Or Previous Con Dition Of Servitude. 2. The Congress Shall Have Power To Enforce This Article ...

The Fourteenth Amendment
The Fourteenth Amendment. Section I. All Persons Born Or Naturalized In The United States, And Subject To The Jurisdiction Thereof, Are Citizens Of The United States And Of The State Wherein They Reside. No State Shall Make Or Enforce Any Law Which Shall Abridge The Privileges Or Immunities Of Citizens ...

Tortoises Turtles
Turtles, Tortoises And Terra Pins, Members Of The Reptilian Order Testudi Nata Or Chelonia (q.v.). To All Of The Marine And Some Of The Fresh-water Species, Espe Cially Those Of Large Size, The Name °turtle)) Is Applied; Most Of The Smaller Pond And Marsh Dwellers Are A Few Being Designated ...

Trans Atlantic Flight
Trans-atlantic Flight. Up To May 1919 The Aerial Passage Of The Atlantic Ocean Was A Surmise With A Hope Of Early Suc Cess, Because Its Possibilities Had Been Worked Out, In Theory, As Beyond A Peradventure. The American Navy Had Several Sea-planes Trained For The Endeavor; Capt. Harry Hawker Had ...

Transcendental Philosophy
Transcendental Philosophy, That Type Of Philosophy Which Holds Understand Ing To Be The Creative Activity In The Real World. To Understand The Use Of The Term Transcen Dental During The Past Century, We Must Refer Back To Kant And His Distinction Between Transcendental And Transcendent. Kant Ap Plied The Term ...

Transfusion
Transfusion, In Medicine, The Opera Tion Of Transferring Blood (defribrinated) From A Receptacle To The Vein Of A Patient — Indirect Or Mediate Transfusion; The Transmission Of Blood From The Vein Of The Giver To That Of The Patient—direct Or Immediate Transfusion; Also The Intravenous Or Subcutaneous Introduction Into The ...

Transits
Transits. The Passage Of A Heavenly Body Between The Observer And Another More Distant Body Of Larger Apparent Surface Is Called A Transit. The Most Frequent Phenomena Of This Kind Occur In The Case Of The Satellites Of Jupiter. The Latter Is Many Times Larger Than Any Of Its Satellites ...

Transplanting
Transplanting, The Process Of Estab Lishing Plants In New Quarters, Is One Of The Most Important Operations Of Horticulture, Agri Culture And Forestry Since It Permits Large Num Bers Of Plants To Be Grown During Their Early Stages In Very Restricted Areas, Thus Economiz Ing Space And The Labor Entailed ...

Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation. The Real Substantial Presence Of The Body And Blood Of Christ In The Eucharist Is One Of The Funda Mental Doctrines Of The Roman Catholic Church, And The Mode Or Nature Of This Mysterious Pres Ence, Which Is Also A Matter Of Doctrinal Belief, Is Expressed By The Technical ...

Transvaal
Transvaal, Trans-val (now Included In The Union Of South Africa), A British Colony In South Africa, Bounded On The North By Mata Beleland, On The East By Portuguese East Africa And Swaziland, On The South By Natal And The Orange River Colony And On The West By Griqualand West, British ...

Transvaal
Transvaal, Gold Mining In The. The Transvaal, Prior To 1903, Comprised An Area Of Nearly 120,000 Square Miles, Hut In That Year, By The Transfer Of Some Of The Southeastern Dis Tricts To Natal, This Area Was Reduced To About 112,000 Square Miles, Which Nearly Equals The Size Of The ...

Transylvania
Transylvania, Tran-s11-vfini-a (ger Man Siebenburgen; Hungarian, Eraly), Aus Tria-hungary; The Southeast Portion Or Region Of The Empire, Since 1868 Incorporated With Hungary; Area, 21,500 Square Miles. The Sur Face Is Mountainous, Being Covered With The Carpathian Chain And Its Ramifications. The Whole Belongs To The Basin Of The Danube, Which ...

Trap Door Spiders
Trap-door Spiders, Large Hairy Theraphosid Spiders Of The Family Ctenizidce And Its Allies, Which Inhabit Dry Warm Countries And Form Well-like Pits Or Burrows In The Ground, Closed By A Hinged Lid. These Burrows Are Placed In High, Well-drained Situations And Are Dug By The Owners, Who Cut Down And ...

Trap Shooting
Trap-shooting, An Outdoor Sport In Creasingly And Deservedly Popular In The United States And Canada, In Which By Means Of A Mechanism Now Called The A Disc Of Coarse Pottery, The Clay Pigeon,* Is Thrown Upward At An Angle Unknown To The Sports Man, Who Thereupon Sights His Piece And ...

Traveling Libraries
Traveling Libraries. A Traveling Library Has Been Defined As "a Collection Of Books Lent For Stated Periods By A Central Li Brary To A Branch Library, Club, Or Other Organ Ization Or, In Some Instances, To An Individual." The Chief Characteristics From Which It Derives Its Name Are Its Temporary ...

Treason
Treason. Treason Is The Highest Crime Known To Society, And Traitors By The Law Of Every Country Are Liable To The Severest Punish Ment. It Is A Crime Directed Against The Very Existence Of The State Itself And Is, Therefore, Regarded As Peculiarly Odious. The Ancient Common Law Of England ...

Treasury
Treasury, The Little Vii An Allegory In Rhymed Heptasyllabic Couplets, Was Written Probably In 1262 And Not Later Than 1266 By The Italian Scholar Brunetto Latini During His Stay In France. This Early Mediaeval Poen, One Of The Oldest Specimens Of Italian Didactic Verse, Antedates Slightly The Author's French Encyclopedia ...

Treasury Department
Treasury Department. The Treasury Department Is That Branch Of The Government Service Which Has Control Of The National Finances. It Is Under The Direction Of The Secretary Of The Treasury, Who Is Ap Pointed By The President, With The Consent Of The Senate, And Among Cabinet Officers, Ranks Second In ...

Treat
Treat, Robert, American Soldier And Statesman : B. Pitminster, Near Taunton, Somer Set, England, 1622; D. Milford, Conn., 12 July 1710. He Came To Massachusetts In 1635, Re Moved To Wethersfield Conn., In 1637, Settled At Milford In 1649, Was Assistant To The Gov Ernor In 1657-65, Represented Milford In ...

Treaties
Treaties, Indian. In A Limited Sense The Indian Tribes Of North America Have Al Ways Been Treated By The Government To Which They Were Subject As Foreign Nations. Before The Revolution The King Maintained Diplomatic Intercourse With Those Tribes Residing Within The Limits Of The Territory Claimed By Great Britain, ...

Treaties
Treaties. A Treaty Is An Agreement Or Compact Between Two Or More Independent Sovereign States For The Settlement Of Their Current Interests Or Controversies, Or For The Of Increasing,. Modifying Or Determin Ing Their Respective Rights, Duties And Obliga Tions, Between Themselves, Or Between Each, And The Subjects Of The ...

Treaties Of The United
Treaties Of The United States With Foreign Nations. The United States Has Always Been A Treaty Making Country, As Well As A Treaty-keeping Country. From The Earliest Days Of Its History As A Nation, When As A New Republic, Flushed With Victory And Hopeful For The Future, It Appealed To ...

Treaty
Treaty, An Agreement, League Or Con Tract Between Two Or More Nations Formally Signed By Commissioners Properly Authorized, And Ratified By The Supreme Power Of Each State. Treaties Are Not Admissible By Sub Ordinate States, For Instance, New York State Cannot Make Any Binding 'treaty With Canada, As That Is ...

Tree Worship
Tree Worship. The Worship Of A Tree As In Itself Divine Does Not Appear To Have Prevailed In Any Age Of The World. In The My Thology Of Ancient Greece And Rome, Trees Were Regarded As The Abodes Of Sylvan Deities, Super Natural Beings, Inferior To The Gods Of Olympus. ...

Tree Of Tule
Tree Of Tule. Among The Big Trees Of The World, The Best Known Are The Sequoias, Or Giant Redwoods Of California, Which Reach A Diameter Of 36 Feet And A Height Of 279 Feet. Not So Widely Known, But Equally Tall, Are The Eucalyptus Trees Of Southeastern Australia. The Banyan ...

Treitschke
Treitschke, Heinrich Von, German Historian: B. Dresden, 15 Sept. 1834; D. Berlin, 28 April 1896. He Was Educated At The Univer Sities Of Bonn And Leipzig And Early Advocated A German Union In His Writings. In 1858 He Was Appointed Lecturer In History At The Uni Versity Of Leipzig And ...

Trench
Trench, Richard Chenevix, Irish Prel Ate, Archbishop Of Dublin ; B. Dublin, 9 Sept. 1807•, D. London, 28 March 1886. He Was Edu Cated At Harrow And Trinity College, Cam Bridge, Where He Was Graduated In 1829. His College Friends Included Tennyson, Hallam, Maurice,. Sterling And Kemble. Ordained In 1832, ...

Trenches
Trenches. An Entrenched Zone Con Sists Of An Entire System Of Trenches And Their Auxiliaries, Composed Of Wire Entanglements And Other Obstacles, Listening Posts, Lookouts, Machine-gun Emplacements, Fire Trenches, Com Municating Trenches, Trenches For Reserves And Supports, Command Posts, Cave Shelters, Latrines And The Like, Occupied Or Susceptible Of Being ...

Trent
Trent, Council Of. The 19th Cecumenical Council Of The Catholic Church Was That Of Trent (1545-63). It Ranks With Nima, Ephe Sus And Chalcedon As One Of The Greatest Of The General Councils. Hitherto The Church Had Been Sundered By Schism And Riven By Heresy In The East. Now The ...

Trespass
Trespass Is A Legal Term Applied Generally To Any Wrongful Entry Upon The Property Of An Other, And Also To Mild Assaults Upon The Per Son, But More Especially Applied To Peaceable, But Unlawful Entry Upon Another's Property For Which There Is A Remedy By Action, For Dam Ages. Any ...

Trevelyan
Trevelyan, Six George Otto, English Biographer, Historian And Politician : B. Rothley Temple, Leicestershire, 20 July 1838. He Was Educated At Harrow And Trinity College, Cam Bridge, Was For Several Years In The Indian Civil Service, Sat In The House Of Commons In 1865 68 As The Representative Of Tynemouth ...

Treves
Treves, Trevz (fr. Tray; Ger. Trier, Trer), Prussia, A Town Of The Rhine Province, Situated On The Moselle, Six Miles From. The Boundary Of Luxemburg And 25 Miles Northeast Of The City Of Luxemburg. Outside Of Southern France No City Of Europe North Of The Alps Con Tains So Many ...

Trevilian Raid
Trevilian Raid And Battle Of Trevilian Station. On 5 June 1864 General Grant Ordered General Sheridan To Take Two Divisions Of Cavalry And Move Into Charlottesville, Destroy The Railroad Bridge Over The Rivanna Near That Town, The Central Rail Road From That Point To Hanover Junction, If Practicable, And Then ...

Trial Of Turbinia
Trial Of Turbinia. Time On The Mile, First Trial, 109t Sec.; Second Trial. 110 Sec. Corresponding Speed In Knots, First Trial, 32.79; Second Trial, 32.73. Mean Speed In Knots, 32.76. Revolutions Per Minute, Of High Pressure And Intermediate Shaft, 2,230. Revolutions Per Minute Of Low-pressure Shaft, 2,000. Steam Pressure In ...

Triassic
Triassic, The Oldest Period Of The Meso Zoic Era And The System Of Rocks Then Formed, So Named From Its Threefold Division In Ger Many, As Follows: Transition Or Rhmtic, Upper Trias Or Keuper, Middle Trias Or Muschelkalk, Lower Trias Or Bunter Sandstein. Of These Divisions, The Middle One Alone ...

Tribune
Tribune, The Designation Of Certain Roman Officials, Civil And Military, With Varying Rank And Power. The _title Is Plainly Derived From The Tribes Which The Tribunes Represented And The Early Tribunes Were No Doubt Com Manders Of The Horse And Foot Furnished To The Roman Army By The Original Tribes. ...

Trichina
Trichina, A Small Nematode Parasitic In The Rat, Pig, And Man Which Is The Cause Of A Much Dreaded Disease Termed Trichinosis Or Trichiniasis. The Scientific Name Of The Parasite Is Properly Trichinella Spiralis And It Is Believed To Have Been Originally A Rat Parasite From Which Host It Went ...

Triest
Triest, Tri-ese (italian Trieste, The An Cient Tergesteum), Italy, One Of The Principal Seaports Of The Kingdom, Situated Between Gorz And Istria In The Coastland, And At The Head Of The Gulf Of Triest, The Extreme Upper Portion Of The Adriatic Sea. The City Rises From The Water In An ...

Trigonometry
Trigonometry, History Of The Ele Ments Of. Among The Ancients Trigonometry Was Simply An Adjunct To Astronomy, And It So Remained Until Comparatively Recent Times. A Slight Trace Of Its Application To Mensuration Is Found In The Famous Papyrus Of Ahmes (see Algebra, History Of The Elements Of), Where A ...

Trillium
Trillium, A Genus Of The Family Lilia Cccr, Monocotyledonous Plants, Having All The Parts In Threes, To Which Circumstance The Generic Name Refers. They Are Handsome Plants Known Also As Wakerobin, Native To North America And Asia. The Leaves Are Triple, In A Single Whorl, The Flower-peduncles Arising From The ...

Trilobite
Trilobite, An Early And Primitive Form Of Crustacerce Fossil, Remains Of Which Are Very Common In The Paleozoic Era. They Are Doubt Less The Ancestors Of Modern Arachnida, That Is Spiders, Scorpions And Mites. In Palmon Tology, Any Individual Of The Order Trilobite, So Called From The Division Of The ...

Trinitarian
Trinitarian, One Who Believes In The Doctrine Of The Trinity, The Union Of Three Per Sons, Father, Son And Holy Spirit, In One God Head. The Received Doctrine Of The Christian Church Among Trinitarians Holds That It N Taught In The Scriptures That There Is But One God, And Yet ...

Trinity College
Trinity College, Located At Durham, N. C. It Was Founded As A School Of Secondary Grade In 1838 And Was Then Located In Ran Dolph County; In 1851 It Became A Normal Col Lege And The Next Year Established A Full Col Lege Course And Was Granted Power To Confer ...

Trinity Doctrine
Trinity Doctrine, The Christian Doctrine Of The Triune Nature Of God. The Doc Trine Of The Trinity Is Nowhere Expressly Taught In The Old Testament. The Doctrine In Regard To The Divine Nature Which Is Most Strongly Insisted On Throughout The Old Testa Ment Is The Unity Of God As ...

Triple Alliance
Triple Alliance, A Name Applied To Various International Agreements, The Earliest Being That Concluded In 1668 Between England, Nolland And Sweden, With The Object Of Op Posing The Advance Of France. Within Two Years, However, Charles Ii Of England Signed A Treaty With The French King, Binding Him Self Not ...

Triple Entente
Triple Entente, The. In The Litera Ture Of International Law And Diplomacy The Term °triple Entente" Has Reference To An Un Derstanding Embodied In Certain Formal Con Ventions And Diplomatic Conversations Between Great Britain, France And Russia. It Differs From The Former Triple Alliance (q.v.) Between Germany, Austria-hungary And Italy ...

Tripoli
Tripoli, North Africa, Formerly A Turk Ish Province, But Since 1912 Annexed To Italy, Situated Along The Mediterranean Coast From Egypt To Tunis, And Extending Inland From 60 To 600 Miles To The Libyan Desert And French Sahara. It Consists Of Tripoli Proper, The Semi Detached District Of Barca Or ...

Tristan
Tristan, A Courtly Epic Written By The Middle High German Poet Gottfried Von Stras Burg About 1210. Like Most Courtly German Epics It Is A Free Rendering Of A French Source, In This Case That Of The Trouvire Thomas Of Brittany, The Master Of The Avewtiure, As Gott Fried Calls ...

Tristram Shandy
Tristram Shandy. (the Life And Opinions Of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman,) By The Rev. Laurence Sterne (1713-68), One Of The Most Famous Masterpieces In English Fic Tion, Was Begun In 1759 By Way Of Relieving The Author's Mind During His Wife's Attack Of Insanity. The First Instalment Was Refused By Dodsley ...

Triumph
Triumph, A Solemn Procession Granted To A Victorious General Of Ancient Rome. It Was Bestowed Only On One Who Had Held The Office Of Dictator, Consul, Or Prator, And After A Decisive Victory Over Foreign Foes, Or On The Complete Subjugation Of A Province. On The Day Of The Triumph ...

Trochoid
Trochoid, In Mathematics Is The Path That Any Point Of A Circle Moving Along A Plane, And Around Its Centre, Traces In The Air ; So That A Nail In The Rim Of A Cartwheel Moves In A Trochoid, As The Cart Goes Along, And The Wheel Itself Both Turns ...

Trochu
Trochu, Tro-shil, Louis Jules, French Soldier: B. Belle Department Of Morbihan, 12 May, 1815; D. Tours, 7 Oct. 1896. He Was Educated At The School Of Saint Cyr, Entered The Army At An Early Age, And In 1840 Was At Tached To The General Staff With The Rank Of Lieu ...

Trogon
Trogon, A Bird Of The Family Trogonider, Of The Order Coraciiformes Or Coccygomorpitce, And Unique In The Structure Of The Feet, In Which The First And Second Toes Are Directed Backward And The Third And Fourth Forward, Whereas In All Other Yoke-toed Birds The First And Fourth Toes Are Directed ...

Troilus And Cressida
Troilus And Cressida.
Troilus And Criseyde
Troilus And Criseyde. This Nar Rative Poem Of Over 8,000 Lines, Written About 1380, Is The Longest And Most Elaborate Work Of Geoffrey Chaucer, And Is By Many Considered His Masterpiece, Though It Is By No Means So Widely Known As Those Immortal 'canterbury Tales' Which Have Made His Name ...

Trojan War
Trojan War, The. According To Greek Legend A 10 Years' War Carried On By The Con Federated Greeks Led By Agamemnon (q.v.), The King Of Mycenw And Argolis, Against The Men Of Troy With Their Allies. The Purpose Of This War Was The Recovery Of Helen, Wife Of King Menelaus ...

Trollope
Trollope, Anthony; English Novelist: B. London, 24 April 1815: D. Harting In Sussex, 6 Dec. 1882. He Was A Son Of Thomas Anthony Trollope, A Barrister At The Law, By Frances, Daughter To William Milton, An English Clergy Man. His Mother Afterward ,became Well Known In Letters. Soon After The ...

Trophy
Trophy, In Antiquity, A Monument Or Me Morial In Commemoration Of Some Victory. It Consisted Of Some Of The Arms And Other Spoils Of The Vanquished Enemy, Hung Upon The Trunk Of A Tree Or A Stone Pillar By The Victorious Army. The Custom Of Ereoting Trophies Was Most General ...

Tropical Forest Products
Tropical Forest Products. The Products Of Forests Are Usually Divided Into Two Great Groups, As Follows: (1) Major Forest Products, Such As Wood Used For Construction Purposes And For Special Uses, As Furniture, Cabinet Work, Wood Used For Small Articles Of All Kinds, Etc.; (2) Minor Forest Products In Clude ...

The Growth And Con
Trusts, The Growth And Con Trol Of. Magnitude Of The Trusts.— In 1904, 'moody's Manual Of Corporation Statis Tics,' 'the Truth About Trusts,' And Other Cog Nate Works, Stated That There Were Seven Greater Industrial Trusts In The United States Having An Aggregate Capitalization In Stocks And Bonds Of A ...