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Transylvania

hungary, wild, include and chiefly

TRANSYLVANIA, tran-s11-vfini-a (Ger man Siebenburgen; Hungarian, Eraly), Aus tria-Hungary; the southeast portion or region of the empire, since 1868 incorporated with Hungary; area, 21,500 square miles. The sur face is mountainous, being covered with the Carpathian chain and its ramifications. The whole belongs to the basin of the Danube, which receives a great part of its waters circuitously by the Maros and the Szamos, both tributaries of the Theirs. The climate is healthful; the summer heat of the lower grounds is at times extreme. There are magnificent and valuable forests; fruits abound everywhere, and the culture of the vine is general. The crops in clude, besides the ordinary cereals, potatoes, etc., also maize, hemp, flax and tobacco. Fine breeds of horses, cattle and sheep are reared. Many horses are exported. Large numbers of swine are fattened. The wild animals include bears, wolves and wild boars. The minerals are important and include gold,. silver, copper, lead, iron, quicksilver, antimony, coal and salt. The last occupies immense tracts. Manufac tures have made little progress and are chiefly in the hands of Germans. The trade is chiefly confined to the natural produce of the country, and imported manufacturers. The chief towns are Kolozsvar (61,000), Brasso (41,000), Nagyszeben (34,000). Education is in a back

ward state. he population, about 2,500,000, is very mixed. Transylvania not being now a political division of Hungary, the reader is re ferred to Hungary for further statistics. The principal nationalities arc Rumanians, Magyars and Germans, besides Gypsies, Jews, Bulgarians and others. The chief religious bodies are Roman Catholics, Greek Catholics and Prot estants. The name Transylvania, signifying "beyond the woods?' is due to the extensive forests on the western side. In ancient times Transylvania was a part of the province of Dacia. From the 4th century onward it was occupied by various nations in succession. In 1004 it was conquered by Stephen I of Hungary and was afterward governed by a viceroy (voyvode). In the 16th century the voyvode John Zapolya obtained Transylvania as a sov ereign principality, but it could not maintain its independence against the house of Austria, and in 1713 was united to Hungary. In 1765 Maria Theresa raised it to the rank of a grand-prin cipality. It suffered severely during the com motions of 1848-49, when there were massacres of the Magyars, and again in 1914-15 when it was invaded by the Russians.