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Treaties of the United States with Foreign Nations

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TREATIES OF THE UNITED STATES WITH FOREIGN NATIONS. The United States has always been a treaty making country, as well as a treaty-keeping country. From the earliest days of its history as a nation, when as a new republic, flushed with victory and hopeful for the future, it appealed to the great foreign powers for rec ognition, the policy of almost every Congress has been to enter into such agreements, and there has been scarcely a Secretary of State who has not realized the necessity of devoting his energies to engendering such sentiments of mutual confidence and friendliness between the United States and other governments. Among the agreements thus established are the reciproc ity treaties which have been a hone of con tention among American statesmen for more than a century. Thomas Jefferson, while Sec retary of State during Washington's first ad ministration, urged upon Congress the adoption of such a reciprocity policy in regulating the customs and commerce of the United States with other nations: " As to the commerce." he said, " two methods occur: First, by friendly arrangements with the several nations with whom these restrictions exist, or, 'won& by the separate act of our own legislature for countervailing their effect. There can be no doubt that, of the two, the friendly arrange ment is the most eligible." From Jefferson to McKinley, a period which represents practically the entire history of the United States, there have been few occasions when this sentiment has not been supported by some of the greatest men in the American political world, and the success of the reci procity movement, so far as this country at least is concerned, undoubtedly inspired the last remarks of President McKinley. A few minutes before he was murdered he declared: Reciprocity treaties are in harmony with the spirit of the time. if some of our tariffs are no longer needed for revenue. or to encourage and protect our industries at home, why should they not be employed to extend and promote our markets abroad.

In 1909 the only countries with which the United States had no treaty were Ahyssinia, Monaco and Montenegro; and those with which no treaties of peace, amity and com merce were established were Egypt, Rumania and Salvador. Among the most important trea ties to which the United States has been a party are the various international agreements which have been executed at Geneva, at Brus sels, and, since the establishment of the per manent International Court of Arbitration, at The Hague, and the fact that this country is fully in sympathy with the purpose of the court is shown by its anxiety to avoid armed conflict, and the readiness with which it has resorted to the more peaceful methods of arbi tration offered by this international tribunal.

The table on following page is a list of the important international acts and conventions in which the United States has been an active participant.

Extradition Treaties.— In 1909 the United States possessed treaties of extradition with over 50 nations, the countries with whom no treaty existed being Bulgaria, China, Costa Rica, Egypt. Greece, Honduras, Korea, Mo rocco, Paraguay, Persia, Rumania and Siam. Such a treaty had existed earlier with Spain, but was expressly abrogated and annulled by Article XXIX of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations of 3 July 1902. The crimes

and offenses which are extraditable under the treaties in force in 1909 were generally inter preted as follows: Murder, homicide (com prehending assassination, parricide, poisoning, infanticide, manslaughter, when voluntary), or the attempts to commit any of these crimes; abduction, kidnapping or childstealing; bigamy, crimes against railroads, wrongful or wilful destruction or obstruction of railroads which endanger human life; arson; crimes committed at sea; piracy by the law of nations; revolt, or conspiracy to revolt, by two or more persons on board a ship on the high seas against the authorities of the ship; wrongfully sinking or destroying a ship at sea, or attempt ing to do so; assaults on board a ship at sea with intent to do serious bodily harm; rape, offenses against chastity committed with violence; abortion, or procuring abortion; ob taining money or valuable goods under false pretenses (usually an amount in excess of $200); forgery, the utterance of forged papers; forgery or falsification of official acts of gov ernment, of public authorities or of courts of justice, of public or private instruments; the use or utterance of the thing forged or falsified; counterfeiting of government acts, seals, stamps, dies and marks of state, or public ad ministration, or the fraudulent use of any of the above-mentioned objects; counterfeiting or altering money, whether coin or paper, the counterfeiting of titles or coupons of public debt, bank-notes or other instruments of public credit, and the utterance, circulation or fraud ulent use of same; the introduction of instru ments for the fabrication of counterfeit coin or bank-notes or other paper current as money; embezzlement of public moneys committed within the jurisdiction of either party by public officers or depositaries; embezzlement by any person or persons hired or salaried to the det riment of their employers; larceny (usually an amount not less than $200) ; burglary, defined to be the act of breaking and entering the house of another in the night time, with intent to com mit a felony therein; robbery, defined to be the felonious and forcible taking from the person of another of goods or money by violence or by putting the person in fear; theft of horses, cattle or livestock (of the value at least $25) ; fraud or breach of trust by a bailee, banker, agent, factor, trustee or other person acting in a fiduciary capacity, or director or member or officer of any company, when such act is made criminal by the laws of both countries (usually not less than $200) ; obtaining by threat of injury or by false devices, money, val uables or other personal property (usually not less than $200) ; receiving moneys, valuables or other personal property with the knowledge that they have been stolen (usually not less than $200) ; perjury or subornation of perjury; crimes and offenses against the laws of both countries for the suppression of slavery and slave-trading; mayhem and any other wilful mutilation causing disability or death; bribery.

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