TRIUMPH, a solemn procession granted to a victorious general of ancient Rome. It was bestowed only on one who had held the office of dictator, consul, or prator, and after a decisive victory over foreign foes, or on the complete subjugation of a province. On the day of the triumph all the temples were thrown open; every shrine was decorated with garlands, and every altar smoked with incense. The general assembled his soldiers without the city, delivered to them a commendatory oration, and distributed rewards and money as their share of the spoil of the enemies. He then mounted his car and advanced to the triumphal gate (porta &inns phalis), where he was met by the senate, and the procession was formed and marched along the Via Sacra to the Capitol. It was led by the senate, headed by the magistrates, and included a train of carriages laden with spoils — models of captured forts and cities, pictures of the country conquered, trumpeters and flute-players, white bulls or oxen destined for sacrifice, at tended by priests with their insignia and imple ments; the most distinguished captives, etc. The triumphant general rode in a circular char iot drawn by four horses; in his right hand he bore a laurel bough, and in his left a sceptre; he was attired in gold-embroidered robe and a flowered tunic, and his brows were encircled with laurel. In the car he was accompanied by his children of tender age, and sometimes by very intimate friends. A public slave held over
his head a gold Etruscan crown ornamented with jewels. The legates, tribunes and eques trians, with the grown-up sons of the conqueror, followed on horseback. The infantry followed in marching order, their spears adorned with laurel, shouting, lo triumPhe! singing hymns to the gods, and praising or ridiculing their gen eral, according to the license of the day, as their humor might dictate. As the procession as cended the Capitoline Hill some of the captives were withdrawn from it and conducted to prison to be put to death. As soon as their execution was intimated the victims were sacrificed, offer ings presented to Jupiter, and the general and his friends parted in the temple, returning home in the evening accompanied by flutes and torches and a crowd of citizens. Sometimes when the spoil was great the procession extended over more than one day. The ovation was a lesser triumph, so called because the sacrifice on the occasion was a sheep. The general entered the city on foot, and was not attended by the senate. He was preceded by flutes, but not by trumpet ers, and was not necessarily accompanied by his army. Consult Mommsen, (Romisches Staats recht> (1887).