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defense, government and national

TROCHU, tro-shil, Louis Jules, French soldier: b. Belle department of Morbihan, 12 May, 1815; d. Tours, 7 Oct. 1896. He was educated at the school of Saint Cyr, entered the army at an early age, and in 1840 was at tached to the general staff with the rank of lieu tenant. Sent to Algeria in 1846, he was made adjutant to Marshal Bugeaud and after some years of service in the ministry of war, acted in the same capacity with Marshals Canrobert and Saint Arnaud in the Crimea, gaining special distinction in the storming of the Malakoff bastian at Sevastopol. He fought against Aus tria in 1859 doing excellent service at Solferino, where he held the rank of general of division. Once more in the Ministry of War and in favor with the government, he made himself persona non grata by the publication of his francaise en 1867,) in which the deplorable con ditions prevailing in the army were ruthlessly pointed out and a reorganization of the national forces on the German model was urged. After

the outbreak of war with Germany he was made governor of Paris, but placed himself in oppo sition to the empire, and after the proclamation of the republic, 4 September, became president of the government of national defense, retain ing at the same time his office of governor of the capital, In his defense of the city against the besieging German army he displayed a half-heartedness which his enemies ascrihed to timidity, but which was due to his conviction of the hopelessness of resistance. He resigned the governorship a few days before the capitu lation of the city, but remained at the head of the provisional government till the meeting of the National Assembly. In his defense he pub lished,