Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27 >> Tropical Forests to Twelfth Century >> Trumpet


flowers, fishes, slide, species, southern, yellow and florida

TRUMPET, a musical wind-instrument with a flaring mouth, generally made of brass, and sometimes of silver. Primitive trumpets were straight tubes. The curves were intro duced to shorten the length. Slides, valves and keys are now added. (See Hoax). The orchestral or slide trumpet consists of a tube about five and one-half feet long, twice curved, and ending in an open cone. The slide is on the second curve. The scale of the slide trum pet begins with A sharp in the first space of the brass stave, and extends to C above the treble stave, but C below the bass stave can be produced. The natural notes are C (below bass), C (octave), G, middle C, E, G, B flat, C, D, E, F, G, A, B flat, B, C. A univalve trumpet was introduced by Bassett in 1876. The addition of .the valve greatly improves the slide trumpet in accuracy and completeness without injuring its characteristic tone. The trumpet, with its thrilling notes and bugle calls, is well fitted for military music.

or TRUMPETER, one of the most important food-fishes (Latris hecateia) of the southern hemisphere. It ranges from 30 to 60 pounds in weight and is considered the best flavored of any of the fishes of New Zealand, Tasmania and South Aus tralia. Large numbers are smoked and sent into the interior.

The name is also applied to several species of fishes belonging to the small families Aulosto midce, Fistulariicke and Macrorhamphosidce, all belonging to the order Hemibranchii, and all having the facial bones much elongated to form a tube bearing the small nearly or quite toothless mouth at the end. They are fishes of peculiar aspect, the body as well as the head being elongated and sometimes protected by bony plates, and in the Fistulariiche the caudal fin bears a pair of long, slender filaments. These fishes are variously known also as to bacco-pipe fishes, cornet-fishes, snipe-fishes and bellows-fishes, all these names having reference to the tubular snout. They are tropical, and species of each family occur in the Gulf of Mexico and the southern waters of the United States.

plants belonging to Tecoma and Bignonia and allied genera of the family Bignoniacece, having trusses of gaily colored flowers with funnel-form corollas. Cam psis grandiflora is the showy trumpet flower or trumpet-creeper from China, with drooping, salmon-yellow and scarlet flowers three inches broad, but is not so hardy as the American C. radicans, which is a very common

shrub of the South, and is called Virginia trum pet-flower by foreigners. It climbs high by rootlets, sending out long, pendulous sprays with opposite pinnate leaves which end in a corymb of tubular flowers, orange colored as to the tubes, and expanding into a five-lobed scarlet limb. Both of these species are planted extensively, as ornamental vines, to cover walls, verandas, etc. The yellow elder, or upright trumpet-flower (Tecoma :tans), is an evergreen shrub of erect growth introduced from Central America, and growing readily in southern Florida. The leaves are pinnate, and immense panicles of golden-yellow flowers bend down the branches with the weight of their bloom. The Cape honey-suckle (Tecomaria capensis) is an evergreen climber which can be trained into shrub form, and is useful for Florida; it can also be grown as a climber, or as a pot-plant, in northern greenhouses. Bignonia venusta of Brazil is another greenhouse climber in the North, but can be grown out of doors in warm climates. Its hanging, ptring-like shoots are clothed with axillary and terminal clusters of large tubular orange-yellow flowers, for four or five feet of their length. The cross-vine, or quarter-vine (B. crucigera) of the southern United States, so called because a transverse section of the stem shows a cruciform marking, is also known as the tendriled trumpet-flower. The leaves are pinnate with only two leaflets, and terminate in a branched tendril; the flowers are large and campanulate with undulate or limb borne in few-flowered cymes. Gelsemsum sempervirens, formerly classified among bignonias, is not only called yellow jas mine, but also the evergreen trumpet-flower. Various species of S olandra, Brunt elssa, Catalpa, and Datura, are known as trumpet-flowers; es pecially tropical tree-species of Datura, such as in Java form boundary hedges about the coffee plantations, and are a marked feature in the landscape. Thevetia neriifolia, of tropical America, is an oleander-like, poisonous plant, with yellow, fragrant flowers, and curious fruit, and is known as yellow-oleander, or trumpet flower ; it grows luxuriantly in Florida.