Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27 >> Tropical Forests to Twelfth Century

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27

Tropical Forests
Tropical Forests. The Beauty Of A Tropical Forest Is Greatly Overestimated By Dwellers In Temperate Climes. The Testimony Of Nearly All Travelers To The Tropics Is To The Effect That Nowhere Did They See Such An Expanse Of Flowers And Charming Forests As Those They Had Left, And They All ...

Tropics 1
Tropics. (1) Is Agronomy, Two Circles On The Celestial Sphere, Whose Distances From The Equator Are Each Equal To The Obliquity Of The Ecliptic, Or 23;4° Nearly. The Northern One Touches The Ecliptic At The Sign Cancer, And Is Thence Called The Tropic Of Cancer, The Southern One Being For ...

Tropieolum
Tropieolum, A Genus Of Annual And Perennial Herbs Of The Family Tropaeolacece. The Species, Of Which There Are About 45, Are Natives Of South America, Particularly Chile And Peru, Whence Many Have Been Taken To All The Warmer Parts Of The World To Be Grown In Gardens For Their Odd, ...

Trotzky
Trotzky, Leon (pseudonym For Leon Bronstein), Russian Socialist: B. Odessa, 1879. In 1900 He Was Imprisoned At Odessa For Participating In A Revolutionary Labor Movement. Since Early Youth Trotzky Has Been An Ardent Advocate Of The Cause Of The Social-democratic Party, And One Of The Ablest Agitators And Orators Who ...

Trout
Trout, Any Of The Various Smaller Species Of Fresh-water Fishes Of The Family (q.v.) ; Especially A "chary" Of The Genus Sal Velinus, And Specifically The Speckled Or Brook Trout Of Eastern North America (s. Fontinalis). The Name Comes Originally From The European Brown Trout (s. Fans). The Distinction Be ...

Trowbridge
Trowbridge, John Townsend, Ameri Can Author: B. Ogden, Monroe County, N. Y., 18 Sept. 1827; D. 12 Feb. 1916. He Attended A District School And By Doing Farm Chores Man Aged To Obtain Sufficient Funds To Attend A Classical School At Lockport, N. Y., For One Term. Then He Went ...

Trowbridge_2
Trowbridge, William Petit, American Engineer: B. In Oakland County, Mich., 25 May 1828; D. New Haven, Conn., 12 Aug. 1892. He Was Graduated At West Point In 1848, Served There During The Last Year Of His Cadetship As Assistant Professor In Chemistry, Later As Assist Ant In The Astronomical Observatory, ...

Troy
Troy, Troi, Or Ilium, A Famous Ancient City In The Northwestern Part Of Asia Minor, The Capital Of The Troad, A Region Lying On The Coast Of The Legean Sea, At The Entrance To The Helles Pont (dardanelles). The Fame Of Troy Rests Upon The Two Homeric Epics, The Iliad ...

Truffles
Truffles, Subterranean Saprophytic Fungi (q.v.), Chiefly European Tuberacece, The Mycelia Of Which Grow In Leaf-mold. Their Fructifications Arc Edible, Solid Tuber-like Bodies, Ranging From The Size Of A Filbert To That Of A Potato, And Ultimately Set Free By The Decay Of The Mycelium. There Are Several Species Of Truffles, ...

Trumbull
Trumbull, James Hammond, Ameri Can Philologist, Brother Of H. C. Trumbull (q.v.) : B. Stonington, Conn., 20 Dec. 1821; D. Hartford, Conn., 5 Au. 1897. He Was Educated J At Yale, Assisted Rev. James H. Linsley In Com Piling Catalogues Of The Mammalia, Reptiles, Fishes And Shells Of Connecticut In ...

Trumbull_2
Trumbull, John, American Jurist And Poet: B. Westbury (now Waterbury), Conn., 24 April 1750; D. Detroit, Mich., 10 May 1831. Graduated At Yale In 1767, He Began In 1770 To Contribute To The Connecticut Journal And New Haven Post-boy A Series Of Essays Called 'the Correspondent,' Patterned After 'the Specta ...

Trumpet
Trumpet, A Musical Wind-instrument With A Flaring Mouth, Generally Made Of Brass, And Sometimes Of Silver. Primitive Trumpets Were Straight Tubes. The Curves Were Intro Duced To Shorten The Length. Slides, Valves And Keys Are Now Added. (see Hoax). The Orchestral Or Slide Trumpet Consists Of A Tube About Five ...

Trustee
Trustee, In Law, A Person To Whom Property Is Legally Committed In Trust, To Be Ap Plied Either For The Benefit Of Specified Individ Uals Or For Public Uses. The Person For Whom Or In Whose Favor The Trustee Holds The Estate, Or Any Interest Therein, Is Called The Cestui ...

Trusts I
Trusts. I. An Economic Unit Is An Ag Gregate Of Land, Labor And Capital United To Gether By More Or Less Permanent Bonds And Operating Under The Guidance Of Some Direct Ing Mind Or Minds. Economic Units Differ In Size, In The Character Of The Work Done And In The ...

Truth
Truth, The. At The Time Of His Death In 1909, Clyde Fitch Was Enjoying A British And Continental Reputation Equal Almost To His Popularity At Home. His Psychological Study, 'the Truth,' Had Been Widely Received; His Melodrama, (the Woman In The Case,' Had Just Been Hailed In London. There Is ...

Trypanosoma
Trypanosoma, A Genus Of Flagellate Protozoa Included In The Order Binucleata Which Are Characteristic Parasites Of Vertebrates And Insects. Related Genera Live In The Gut Of In Sects But Trypanosoma Is Parasitic In The Blood Of Vertebrates (except Tr. Equiperdum). The Species Are Transmitted By Blood-sucking Sects, Especially The Biting ...

Tschudi
Tschudi, Choo'cle, Jegidius Or Giles, Swiss Historian : B. Glarus, 5 Feb. 1505; D. There, 28 Feb. 1572. After Receiving An Education At Basel, Vienna, And Paris, He Traveled For A Time And Served In The French Army, 1536-44. He Was The Chief Magistrate Of Glarus In 1558, But On ...

Tsuba
Tsuba, Tsil-bah, The Japanese Sword Guard, Unlike The Early Chinese And European Sword Guards Which Were Wrought Into The Blade, Was A Distinctly Separate Piece Of Metal, Through Which The Blade Passed. Originally, In Prehis Toric Times, The Tsumiba, Or "blade-clincher' Was Heavy, Of Gilt Copper And Ovate Shape. In ...

Tuatara
Tuatara, Too-a-ta'ra, The Native Name Of Sphenodon Ininctatum, A Large Lizard-like Reptile Formerly Abundant On The Mainland Of New Zealand, But Now Restricted To Some Of The Small Islands Off The Coast And Probably Doomed To Total Extinction. It Is The Sole Living Repre Sentative Of The Order Rhynchocepholia And ...

Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, An Infectious, Com Municable Disease Caused By The Bacillus Of Tuberculosis. The Bacillus Induces The Formation Of Little Nodules Called Tubercles. These Tubercles May Grow In Size Through The Continued Action Of The Organisms; They May Soften, Break Down And Be Expelled, Leaving Behind An Ulcer Or A Cavity; ...

Tucker
Tucker, William Jewett American Col Lege President: B. Griswold, Conn., 13 July 1839. He Was Graduated At Dartmouth College In 1861, And After Completing The Course At An Dover Theological Seminary, Was Ordained To The Congregational Ministry In 1867, And In Stalled As Pastor Of The Franklin Street Church, Manchester, ...

Tucson
Tucson (frofn The Pima °black Or Dark Base,* In Allusion To A Stratum In A Mountain To The Westward), Ariz., City, County-seat Of Pima County, On The Santa Cruz River And The Southern Pacific, The El Paso And Southwestern, And Other Railroads, About 120 Miles Southeast Of Phinnix And 150 ...

Tufts College
Tufts College, Located At Tufts Col Lege Station Near Medford, Mass. It Was Chartered In 1852 And First Opened To Students In 1854; Though Established By Members Of The Universalist Church, It Is Non-sectarian In Its Policy And Control. A Notable Feature Of The First Curriculum Of The College Was ...

Tulalip
Tulalip. See Salishan Indians. Tulane, Paul, American Philan Thropist : B. Princeton, N. J., 6 May 1801; D. There, 27 May 1887. He Came Of A Distinguished Family Of French Jurists, The Probate Judgeship Of Tours Having Been In The Tulane Family For 150 Years. His Father, Louis Tulane, Came ...

Tulane University Of Louis
Tulane University Of Louis. Iana, Located In New Orleans. This Institu Tion, Under Its Present Name, Was Created By Act No. 43 Of The Legislature Of 1884. Its Oldest Department Is The Medical College, Which Was Organized As Aprivate Enterprise In 1834, And Which Was The First Medical College In ...

Tulip
' Tulip, A Genus Of Bulbous Herbs Of The Family Li!laced.. The Species, Of Which About 100 Have Been Described And 40 Introduced Into Cultivation, Are Natives Of Temperate Asia, And Some Have Become Naturalized In The Mediter Ranean Region Of Europe. They Are Character Ized By Tunicated Bulbs, Linear ...

Tulip Tree
Tulip-tree, One Of The Handsomest And Largest Deciduous Trees (liriodendron Tulipi Fera) In America, Attaining Its Greatest Dimen Sions In The Middle States, In Deep, Moist, Loamy Soils. It Is Remarkable For Its Absolutely Straight, Massive Trunk, Sometimes Tapering From A Base, 20 To 25 Feet In Girth, To A ...

Tulsa
Tulsa, Okla., The County-seat Of Tulsa County, Situated On The Arkansas River In The Heart Of The Mid-continent Field, Of Which It Is The Financial, Commercial And Transportation Centre. Tulsa Is Known As Wonder City" And The Oil Capital Of The World, There Being More Than 500 Operating Oil And ...

Tumor
Tumor (lat. Tumor, From Tumeo, To Swell). Terms Frequently Used In The Same Sense Are New Growth, Neoplasm, Malignant Disease. A Neoplasm Or Tumor In The Narrower Sense Is A New Formation Of Tissue, Apparently Arising And Developing Independently, Atypical In Structure, Inserted Uselessly Into The Body, Possessing No Function ...

Tumulus
Tumulus, An Ancient Artificial Mound, Often Of Large Size, Raised Usually Over The Tomb Of Some Prominent Person. The Custom Appears To Have Been Universal In The Early His Toric Period. As It Required The Use Only Of Earth, And Of Rude Stones For A Sepulchral Chamber, It Was The ...

Tunis
Tunis, Kir& (araixiva), North Africa One Of The Old Barbary States On The Mediter Ranean Coast, Formerly Tributary To Turkey, And Now A French Protectorate, Bounded On The North And East By The Mediterranean Sea, On The South By Tripoli And On The West By Al Geria. It Extends About ...

Tunnels
Tunnels, Great Modern. The Comple Tion Of The Boring Of The Simplon Tunnel On 24 Feb. 1905, Thus Assuring Of Its Being Opened To Travel During The Latter Part Of That Year, Marked The Culmination Of One Of The Greatest Events In Civil Engineering During The Last Dec. 'ade, And ...

Tunnels And Tunneling
Tunnels And Tunneling. A Tunnel May Be Considered An Underground Or Sub-surface Passage Of Any Form Of Cross-sec Tion Most Suitable For The Purpose Of Construc Tion Or For The Purposes To Be Served After Con Struction. It Is Ordinarily Supposed To Be Con Structed Without Disturbing The Natural Material ...

Tupelo
Tupelo, One Of The Several American Trees Of The Genus Nyssa, Family Cornacece. Nyssa Is Found Also In Eastern Asia. There Are Swamp-loving Trees, With Alternate, Entire, Or Nearly Entire Leaves, And Regular, Small, Greenish Flowers In Capitate Clusters, The Fertile Blossoms Sometimes Solitary, On Slender Axillary Stalks, And Appearing ...

Tupelo_2
Tupelo, Battle Of. In March 1864, Gen. N. B. Forrest, At The Head Of A Large Force Of Confederate Mounted Infantry, Advanced From Mississippi And Made A Raid Through West Ten Nessee To Paducah, Ky. Upon His Return He Assaulted And Captured Fort Pillow (q.v.) On 12 April. General Sturgis ...

Tupper
Tupper, Tiip'er, Sir Charles, Canadian Statesman: B. Amherst, Novi Scotia, 2 July 1821; D. In England, 1915. He Was Graduated From Edinburgh University In 1843 With The Degree Of M.d.; Began The Practice Of Medicine In His Native Town And In 1867-70 Was Presi Dent Of The Canadian Medical Association. ...

Turandot
Turandot, An Oriental Fantasy In Verse By The Venetian Dramatist, Carlo Gozzi (q.v.), Was Th Fourth Of His Fiabe (those Odd Nurser• Tale Plays) And Was Produced In Venice, Jan. 1762. To Confute The Criticisms Of His Adversaries, That The Fiabe Owed Their Success To Utilization Of Magic Metamorphoses And ...

Turanian
Turanian, A Designation Applied To The So-called Agglutinative Family Of Languages That Is, Languages In Which No Proper Inflection Exists, But In Which Pronouns Are Made To Ad Here To The Root Of The Verb To Form The Con Jugation And Prepositions To Substantives To Form The Declension. There Must ...

Turbine
Turbine, Literally That Which Spins Or Whirls Around; In Mechanics, A Wheel Which Rotates By The Aid Of Flowing Water, Air Or Steam And Thus Furnishes Motive Power For Machinery. Although The Steam-turbine Is As Old As The Christian Civilization It Is Only Within The Last Half Century That It ...

Turbine Navigation
Turbine Navigation. The Applica Tion Of Steam-turbines (see Turbine) To Tor Pedo Boats, Destroyers And Cruisers Is To Be An Ticipated From Their Unique Capacity For Develop Ing Great Power And High Speed With Light And Compact Machinery. The Conditions In A Fast Passenger Steamer Are Favorable To The Economi ...

Turco Italian War 1911 12
Turco-italian War 1911-12. Ever Since The Occupation By France Of Algeria And Tunis In 1882, Italian Statesmen Had Been More Or Less Preoccupied With The Question Of Tripoli And Cyrenaica, The Last Remnants Of Turkish Dominion In Africa. On The Northern Coast Of The Black Continent, That Strip Which Belongs ...

Turenne
Turenne, Henri De La Tour D'anvergne, 6ft-re De Ii Tour Do-varn-y Tii-r6n, Vicomte De, French Commander : B. Sedan, 11 Sept. 1611; D. Sasbach, 27 July 1675. He Learned The Art Of War Under His Uncles Maurice And Henry Of Nassau, And In 1630 Entered The Service Of France. In ...

Turgai
Turgai, Toor-gi • Russian Central Asia, A Sparsely Populated District Lying South Of The Government Of Orenburg, And North Of The Aral Sea. Area, 169,832 Square Miles- Pop. 706,200. It Is Traversed In The West By The Southern Extremity Of The Ural Mountains. The Rest Of The Country Is Steppes ...

Turgite
Turgite, Terlit, A Common Iron Ore Much Resembling Limonite, With Which It Is Usually Associated. It Is Distinguished From That By Its Red Streak, Higher Specific Gravity, 4.14 To 4.68, And By Its Violent Decrepitation When Heated. It Usually Occurs In Compact-fibrous, Often Botryoidal Or Stalactitic Coatings On The Surface ...

Turin
Turin, Kirin, Or Torino, T6-rentr, Italy, Capital Of The Province Of The Same Name, On The Po, 75 Miles Southwest Of Milan. Its Po Sition At The Junction Of Several Alpine Mountain Routes Lends It Much Military Importance. It Is A Large Military Station, Directed Toward The Defense Of The ...

Turkey
Turkey, An American Game-bird Of The Pheasant Family And Genus Meleagris, Widely Known Both Wild And Domesticated. The Com Mon Northern Wild Turkey (m. Gallapavo) Formerly Inhabited Almost All Parts Of The United States And Southern Canada And South Ward Through The Greater Part Of Mexico; It Is Now Numerous, ...

Turkish Language
Turkish Language. It Belongs To The Linguistic Group Known As The Ural-altaic Or Of The Idioms Forming Part Of This Group The Turkish Holds Premier Place Because Of The Great Size Of Territory In Which It Dominates And Because Of Its Conformity Of Type. In Structural Points It Excels Within ...

Turkish Literature
Turkish Literature. As Islam Was The Gift Of Arabia And Persia To The Turks, So Also Has Their Literature Been Powerfully In Fluenced By These Two Countries. Nay, The Sober Truth Is That Nearly All Their Higher Education Dates From There, At Least Up To The Period Of The Crimean ...

Turkish Spy
Turkish Spy, The. Giovanni Paolo Marana (1642-93) Was A Genoese Political Refu Gee Gifted With A Keen Mind, Cosmopolitan Politi Cal Interests And A Facile Pen. Finding Himself In Financial Straits, He Began In Paris In 1684 The Publication Of 'l'espion Du Grand Seigneur Dans Les Cours Des Princes Chritiens,) ...

Turmeric
Turmeric, The Tuberous Rhizomes Of A Plant (curcuma Tonga) Of The Ginger Family. It Is A Perennial, Native To Southern Asia, And Cultivated Largely Both There And In The Malayan Islands. The Ovate, Central Tubers Are Known As Or Around Turmeric"; The More Cy Lindrical, Lateral Ones, As ((fingers') Or ...

Turner
Turner, Joseph Mallord William, Eng Lish Painter: B. London, 23 April 1775; D. Chel Sea, 19 Dec. 1851. He Entered The Royal Acad Emy As A Student, And After Remaining There In That Capacity For Five Years And Working Actively At His Profession For Another Five, During Which Periods He ...

Turner_2
Turner, Nat Negro Slave, Preacher And Leader Of The ((southampton Insurrection"; B. Southampton County, Va., 1800; Executed At Jerusalem, Va., 11 Nov. 1831. A Man Of Ele Mentary Education, But A Preacher Of Natural Ability And Influence Among The Negroes, His Mystical Claims Of Hearing Voices And Seeing Visions From ...

Turnip
Turnip, A Popular Name For Two Closely Related Biennial Herbs Of The Family Brasst Caceo. The Common Turnip (brass:cc; Raps) Has A Flattened White-fleshed, Tuberous Root Crowned By A Compact Tuft Of Thin Green Hairy Leaves From The Centre Of Which, During The Second Season, A Flower-stem Rises About 18 ...

Turpentine
Turpentine, A Resinous Juice, Oleo Resin, Extracted From Several Trees Belonging To The Genus Pinus. The Common American Tur Pentine Of Commerce Comes From The Pinus Palustris, Which Grows Abundantly In The South Ern States. When First Extracted It Is Crude Or Common Turpentine, Varying From 75 To 90 Per ...

Turpentine Oil
Turpentine Oil, The Volatile Oil Or Spirit Obtained By Distilling Crude Turpentine, The Latter Being Obtained From Coniferous Trees By Incision Through The Bark Or Wood. When Crude Turpentine Is Distilled There Results Resin, A Solid, And The Oil Of Turpentine, A Liquid, Which When Pure Is Clear And Colorless. ...

Turquois
Turquois, Ter-koiz', A Mineral Whose Name (often Spelled "turquoise))) Alludes To Its Coming Into The European Market Through Turkey. It Is A Hydrous Phosphate Of Alum Inum, Containing A Small Amount Of Copper, To Which Its Color Is Due. It Has Been A Favorite Gem In The Orient, From The ...

Tusayan
Tusayan, Too-s5.-yan, An Ancient °prov Ince,' Comprising The Tribal Range Of The Hopi Or Moqui Indians Of Northeastern Arizona, Which Was First Visited By Pedro Tovar And Juan De Padilla, Of The Expedition Of Coronado, In The Summer Of 1540. It Comprised Seven Vil Lages Or Pueblos, Probably All Of ...

Tuskegee Normal And Indus
Tuskegee Normal And Indus Trial Institute, A Negro Educational Institution Established By Negroes In Tuskegee, Ala., For The Education Of Students Of Their Own Race. The School Was Called Into Being By An Act Of Congress, And Was Opened In 1881 Under The Official Name Of Tuskegee State Normal School, ...

Tutelo
Tutelo, Too-talo. Strictly The Name Of A Tribe Of The Former Monacan Confederacy Of The Siouan Stock Of North American Indians, Who, When First Known To The Whites, In 1671, Lived On The Headwaters Of The Dan In South Western Virginia. The Name, However, Being A Contraction Of The Iroquoian ...

Twachtman
Twachtman, Twat'man, John Henry, American Painter: B. Cincinnati, 4 Aug. 1853; D. Greenwich, Conn., 8 Aug. 1902. He Came Under The Influence Of Frank Duveneck In 1875, Just As The Latter Was Fresh From The Studio Of Prlotry At Munich, And Was Making A Great Impression In New York By ...

Tweed
Tweed, Twed, William Marcy, American Politician: B. New York, 3 April 1823; D. There, 12 April 1878. He Was By Trade A Chairmaker And First Gained Political Foothold Through His Popularity As Foreman Of The "americus" Fire. Engine Company No. 6, Known As "big Six." He Was An Alderman In ...

Twelfth Century
Twelfth Century. This Is The Century Of The Crusades. The First Crusade Was Preached In 1095 And The Latin Kingdom Of Jerusalem Came Into Existence (1099) Just Be Fore It Opened. Men Continued To Go From Eu Rope In Large Numbers During The First Quarter Of The Century To Strengthen ...