TUPPER, tiip'er, SIR Charles, Canadian statesman: b. Amherst, Novi Scotia, 2 July 1821; d. in England, 1915. He was graduated from Edinburgh University in 1843 with the degree of M.D.; began the practice of medicine in his native town and in 1867-70 was presi dent of the Canadian Medical Association. He entered political life in 1855 when elected as a Conservative to the Nova Scotia assembly and there became a leader of his party in the adoption of a more progressive policy, became provincial secretary in 1857 and in 1864 Premier of Nova Scotia. He took a leading part in bringing 'about the union of the Canadian provinces and in the organization of the Do minion government, attending the Charlotte town and Quebec conferences and the final conference at London. In 1867 he was elected to the Canadian House of Commons, represent ing his constituency there from 1867 to 1884, from 1887 to 1888 and from 1896 to 1900. He was president of the Privy Council in 1870-72, Minister of Inland Revenue in 1872 and Min ister of Customs in 1873. The Conservative government being defeated in the last-named year, be became one of the principal organizers and leaders of the opposition and brought be fore Parliament the plan of moderate protec tion for home industries, subsequently adopted by a Conservative administration. On the re
turn of his party to power in 1878 he entered the government as Minister of Public Works and in 1879 organized and became first Minister of the Department of Railways and Canals; in this office he greatly assisted the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1884 he went to London as High Commissioner of Canada, returning for a time in 1887-88 to become Minister of Finance, but resigned that office in 1888 and resumed his position in Lon don. In 1896 he again returned to Canada to enter the ministry and was Secretary of State until April, when he became Premier; but his party was defeated in June of that year and he was chosen leader of the opposition in the House. He lost his scat at the election of 1900 and retired from public life. In 1887 he was one of the plenipotentiaries to the fisheries con ference at Washington, which resulted in the treaty settling the fisheries dispute. In '1879 he was knighted and in 1888 made a baronet. Consult his 'Recollections of Sixty Years' (To ronto 1914) ; Sanders, E. M., 'The Life and Letters of the Right Honorable Sir Charles Tupper) (1916).