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war, court, france and party

TURENNE, Henri de la Tour d'Anvergne, 6ft-re de II tour do-varn-y tii-r6n, VICOMTE DE, French commander : b. Sedan, 11 Sept. 1611; d. Sasbach, 27 July 1675. He learned the art of war under his uncles Maurice and Henry of Nassau, and in 1630 entered the service of France. In this service he distinguished him self in Lorraine and northern Italy, and in December 1643 he received from Mazarin the command of the army of the Rhine. In August 1646 he succeeded, by a series of skilful ma neuvers, in forming a union with the Swedes under Wrangel, and along with him defeated the Bavarians at Zusmarshausen, and com pelled the elector to agree to a truce (March 1647). During the disturbances of the Fronde, which began in 1648, he at first sided with the malcontents; but after the death of his elder brother he changed sides, and defended the court against the Prince of Conde, who had previously been the main snpport of the court party. The victories of Turenne at Bleneau on the Loire (April 1652), and in the suburb of Saint Antoine at Paris (July 1652), led to the termination of the civil war and the com plete triumph of the court party; but during these disturbances the Spaniards had taken up arms, and now under Conde, who was so ex asperated with the court that he joined the enemies of France, invaded Artois. Turenne

was sent to repel the invasion, and gained a victory at Arras in 1654. But the war was prolonged for several years. At last his vic tory on the downs near Dunkirk in 1658, and the capture of Dunkirk itself in the same year, prepared the way for the Peace of the Pyrenees, which was concluded in the following year. In 1660 he was named marshal-general of the camps and armies of France. When the war was renewed with Spain in 1667 Turenne con quered Flanders in three months, and in the following year subjugated Franche-Comte in as many weeks. In the Dutch War of 1672 he had the chief command and earned greater re nown by his exploits during this war than in any other. Turenne first marched against the elector, Frederick William of Brandenburg, and having driven him back as far as the Elbe forced him to sign the Treaty of Vossem in 1673. In the winter campaign of 1674-75, which was signalized by the victories of Sintzheim, Mulhouse (1674), and Turkheim (1675), he delivered Alsace, which had been given up for lost by the minister of Louis XIV, from the imperial troops. This is the most brilliant cam paign of his whole career. He was killed at Sasbach while making his preparations to en gage Montecuculi.