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TURGITE, terlit, a common iron ore much resembling limonite, with which it is usually associated. It is distinguished from that by its red streak, higher specific gravity, 4.14 to 4.68, and by its violent decrepitation when heated. It usually occurs in compact-fibrous, often botryoidal or stalactitic coatings on the surface of limonite. It then possesses a bril liant submetallic lustre on the outer surface and a much duller, satiny lustre on the broken fibrous surfaces. Its color is black or dark brownish-red; hardness 5 to 6. Its most typical American locality is in Salisbury, Conn. It also occurs in an earthy form like red ochre.

TURGOT, Anne Robert Jacques, French statesman : b. Paris, 10 May 1727; d. there, 20 March 1781. In 1751 he renounced his intention of entering the Church, and in the end of the following year he was admitted a councillor of the Parliament. While fulfilling the duties of this position he also occupied him self with economical studies, and made himself well acquainted with the physiocratic system of Quesnay. In 1761 he was appointed intendant of Limoges, which post he occupied for 12 years, and was long remembered with gratitude for his wise, salutary and benevolent reforms and regu lations. On the accession of Louis XVI in 1774

Turgot was first put at the head of the marine; but a few months later he became comptroller general of France. He moderated the duties on articles of the first necessity without loss to the revenue; freed commerce from many fetters, and encouraged industry by enlarging the rights of individuals, and abolishing the exclusive Privileges of companies and corporations. He also formed a project for commuting the feudal rights, for rendering salt an article of free mer chandise, and for reforming the royal household. His reward 'for these useful and benevolent views was opposition and ridicule. He was, however, able to carry into effect some very im portant improvements; but as he endeavored to. control the nobility, restrict the clergy, and re strain the license assumed by the officers of the Crown, they all united against him. The result was his dismissal from office in 1776, from which period he lived a retired and studious life until his death.