TURIN, Kirin, or TORINO, t6-rentr, Italy, capital of the province of the same name, on the Po, 75 miles southwest of Milan. Its po sition at the junction of several Alpine mountain routes lends it much military importance. It is a large military station, directed toward the defense of the western highways over the Alps. It contains numerous fine squares of Piazoas, chief of which is the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, unsurpassed on the Continent; Piazza Carlo Emanuele II or Carlina; and others, usually embellished by equestrian statues or busts of distinguished men. The Nuovo Giardino Pub blico, along the river, botanical garden, Giardino della Citadella, Giardino Reale and zoological garden are interesting parks. The Renaissance cathedral (1492-98) has a marble facade and con tains the tombs of the Dukes of Savoy. Other churches are the Consolata, San Spirito, San Massimo, Gran Madre di Dio, a Moorish syna gogue, and a Waldensian church. La Superga is a fine Basilica on an eminence overlooking the town. It is the burial chapel of the House of Savoy. The chief palaces are Palazza Madama, Carignano,-- with natural history col lections—Palazzo di Citti, or town hall—con taining a library and monuments — Palazzo Reale, or royal palace, with a royal armory, Palazzo dei Torri, Palazzo del Accadernia delle Scienze, with a fine collection of antiques and a picture gallery, etc. The museums and Ac
cademia Albertina delle Belle Asti, the exchange, arsenal, university (1404), theatres, hospitals and numerous schools are the other important edifices. One of the best libraries of Europe is housed in the Biblioteca Nazionale. The Royal Albertine Library of 60,000 volumes and 3,000 manuscripts is also located here, and there is a municipal library of 104,000 volumes. Manu factures are important and consist of silks, jewelry, furniture, pianos, gloves, leather, paper, iron and steel goods, soap, tobacco, machinery, and velvet hats; silk and wine are exported. Turin was the capital of the modern kingdom of Italy until 1865; it was the ancient capital of the Taurini, a native tribe of Celto-Liguarians, and was the seat of government under Charle magne until 1032. The French captured the town in 1640 and in 1800 annexed it. In 1815 it was restored to the House of Savoy. Pop. 451,994. Consult Borbonese, 'Torino illustrate e descritta' (Turin 1884), and Promis, dell antica Torino' (ib. 1871).