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TURNER, Joseph Mallord William, Eng lish painter: b. London, 23 April 1775; d. Chel sea, 19 Dec. 1851. He entered the Royal Acad emy as a student, and after remaining there in that capacity for five years and working actively at his profession for another five, during which periods he sent to the exhibition no less than 59 pictures, he was elected in 1799 an associate of the Royal Academy. In the two following years he exhibited 14 pictures, and in 1802 was elected an academician. Until this date he had chiefly been known as a landscape painter in water-colors, but thenceforth he turned his at tention to oil-painting, and in the ensuing half century produced at the Academy exhibitions upward of 200 pictures. In 1807 he was elected professor of perspective in the Royal Academy, and the following year appeared his or of Studies,) which Char les Turner, Lupton and others engraved. Other works by him which were engraved are his illustrations of Lord Byron's and Sir Walter Scott's poems; Rogers' 'Italy' and Rivers of England); Rivers of France' and of the Southern Coast.' To enumerate the different paintings of Turner would be impossible. They have established him as the greatest of English landscape paint ers and earned for him the appellation of the °English Claude)); indeed many of his admirers pronounce him superior to the great French painter of that name. Among his more famous pictures reference may specially be made to his Castle> ; Awe' ; (The Tenth Plague of Egypt> ; Wreck of the Mino taur' ;_ Pier); Fighting Tem& Tugged ugged to her Last Berth' • (The Grand Canal, Venice); and iAneas); Golden Bough' • ; (The Fall of and Building of Carthage.) In private life Turner was a man rather of reserved and unsocial manners, but the reports circulated of his parsimony and sullenness ap pear to have been quite untrue, and many in stances are recorded of his liberal and gen erous acts both as a man and an artist. He never was married. By his will he bequeathed all his pictures, of which he had about 60 in his possession at his death, along with an immense number of engravings and sketches, to the no tion, on condition of a suitable building being erected within 10 years for their reception. They have been placed in the Turner Gallery, occupying two rooms in the National Gallery. He also Intended a large part of his fortune to be devoted to the formation of a benevolent fund for artists, but this intention, though clearly enough expressed, was set aside by the lawyers because of the somewhat confused nature of his will. Turner owes his immense reputation largely to the brilliant advocacy of John Ruskin (q.v.) in his (Modern Painters.'

Mr. Ruskin divides his career, from an artistic point of view, into five periods: a period of development, three periods of greatness and one of decline. His development period ended with 1800. It includes these, among other works: 'A View of the Archbishop's Palace at Lam beth> (1790) ; The Pantheon the Morning after the Fire' (1792). His first style lasted from about the beginning of the century to about 1820, and in it he as a student imitating various old masters." The principal pictures of this period are 'The Fifth Plague of Egypt' (1800) ; The Tenth Plague of Egypt> 1802 (1 ; (Kilchurn Castle' 1802) (Calais Pi(er' ) 803) ; (The Shipwreck' ( (1805) ; and 'Dido building Carthage' (1815). The 'Liber Studiorum) also belongs to the period of his first style. His second style prevailed, ac cording to Ruskin, from about 1820 to about 1835, and was characterized by freedom from mere imitation and by striving for beautiful, ideal effects. Among the works which illustrate it are the following: Bay of Baia:,' with (Apollo and the Sibyl' (1823) ; 'Cologne' (1826) ; (Dido directing the Equipment of the Fleet' (1828) • and (1836) ; Avalanche, and Inundation' (1837) ; (Modern Italy' (1838) ; Italy> (1838) ; (The Fighti Temeraire Tugged to her Last Berth' (1839), ), his best known picture; 'The Campo Santo> (1842) ; 'The Snowstorm' (1842) ; 'Peace—Burial at Sea' (1842) ; 'The Approach to Venice' (1843) • and 'Rain, Steam and Speed' (1844). 'The remaining years of his life were years of decline, but his genius still asserted itself fitfully. The Metro politan Museum and the New York Public Library have several good examples of the work of this artist. Consult Ruskin, 'Modern Painters,' biographies by Thornbury (New York 1862) ; Hamerton (Boston 1879) ; Monk house (New York 1882) ; Armstrong, Sir W., (J. W. Turner> (New York 1901) ; Wornum, Gallery' (1859) ; Wedmore, 'Turner and Ruskin' (2 vols., London 1900) ; Cook's Handbook to the National Gallery; Rawlinson, W. G., (Turner's Liber Studiorum: Descrip tion and Catalogue' (2d ed., New York 1907) ; Finbery, A. J., 'Turner's Sketches and Draw ings> (ib. 1910) ; Phythian, J. E., (Turner> (ib. 1911) ; Wyllie, W. L., (J. M. \V. Turner> (ib. 1905). See also the article PAINTING for an indication of his position in the history of painting.