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indians, established and hopi

TUSAYAN, too-s5.-yan, an ancient °prov ince,' comprising the tribal range of the Hopi or Moqui Indians of northeastern Arizona, which was first visited by Pedro Tovar and Juan de Padilla, of the expedition of Coronado, in the summer of 1540. It comprised seven vil lages or pueblos, probably all of which have since been abandoned and new ones built on near-by sites. Between the year named and 1583 two of the villages became depopulated, fOr in the latter year Antonio de Espejo visited the province of °Mohoce," consisting of the five vil lages of Shumopovi, Mashongnovi, Walpi, Oraibi and Awatobi, all but the last of which (which was destroyed about the year 1700) are still names of their present-day towns. In addition there are Shipaulovi, Sichumovi and Hano, which have been established in comparatively recent times, the last by a colony of Tanoan Indians from the Rio Grande in New Mexico. The Hopi Indians are peaceable, derive their subsistence through cultivation of the sandy soil and making excellent basketry and pottery.

They still perform many aboriginal rites and ceremonies, the most celebrated of which is their snake dance, in which live rattlesnakes and other serpents are used. Their villages are all situated on lofty mesas, and their houses are generally similar to those of the other Pueblo Indians (q.v.). The Spaniards established mis sions among them as early as 1629, but they never took kindly to Christianization, and in 1680 murdered their Spanish priests. Hence forward little effort was made to convert them, but in recent years schools have been established in their midst by the United States govern ment and an effort made to teach them the white man's ways, sometimes force being used to overcome their conservatism. The Hopi are kind, hospitable and industrious and have been regarded by ethnologists as the most primitive Indians within the United States. They num ber 1,841. Oraibi in the Moqui Reserve, Ariz., is their largest pueblo.