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TUTELO, too-talo. Strictly the name of a tribe of the former Monacan confederacy of the Siouan stock of North American Indians, who, when first known to the whites, in 1671, lived on the headwaters of the Dan in south western Virginia. The name, however, being a contraction of the Iroquoian designation (Todi rich-roone) of all the Siouan tribes of the South Atlantic Coast was employed by the Iroquois in a more comprehensive sense. By 1675 the Tutelo tribe had drifted to the Roanoke River in southern Virginia, and by 1701 had occupied several parts of upper North Carolina, owing to pressure of the Iroquois from the north. Soon after 1711, with the remnants of the various tribes of Virginia and the adjacent parts of North Carolina, they were gathered at Fort Christanna, in the present Brunswick County, Va., where they became generally known as Christanna or Saponi Indians, although the latter name was strictly applicable to a single though cognate tribe. At Fort Christanna the tribes were thrown in contact with unprincipled whites, whose influence had the usual effect of rapidly degrading the Indians, although Gover nor Spotswood made an attempt to educate their children. The Iroquois raids continued, not withstanding the proximity of the garrison, but these practically came to an end with the Albany treaty of 1722. Dissatisfied with their white neighbors, and particularly with the hanging of one of their chiefs, the Tutelo, Saponi and other confederated tribes resolved to follow the ex ample of the Tuscaroras (q.v.) by placing them

selves under the protection of the Iroquois. Consequently, about 1740, they began a gradual migration northward, settling first at Shamokin village, Pennsylvania, where Sunbury now stands. By 1748 they had settled at Skogari, in the present Columbia County, Pa., where they were described by Zeisberger as a degenerate remnant of thieves and drunkards." In 1753 the Tutelo and their allies were adopted by the Cayugas, becoming a part of the Six Nations. As the Iroquois espoused the cause of the British in the American Revolution, half of them, including most of the Cayugas, were driven into Canada, where they were settled on the Grand River reserve. The Tutelo went with them, erecting their village on "Tutelo Heights," a suburb of Brantford. About 1830 they still numbered some 200, but a smallpox epidemic in 1832 greatly reduced, and another in 1848 almost exterminated, the tribe. In 1871 the last full-blood survivors passed away. See Hale in 'Proceedings of the American Philo sophical Society' (Vol. XXI, Philadelphia 1883 84) ; Hodge, 'Handbook of the American In dians) (Washington 1910) ; Mooney, 'Siouan Tribes of the East' (Washington 1894).