TWACHTMAN, twat'man, John Henry, American painter: b. Cincinnati, 4 Aug. 1853; d. Greenwich, Conn., 8 Aug. 1902. He came under the influence of Frank Duveneck in 1875, just as the latter was fresh from the studio of Prlotry at Munich, and was making a great impression in New York by his brilliant and rapid execution. Twachtman, .at his sugges tion, studied from 1875 to 1878 at Munich under Loefftz and subsequently at Paris. He eventu ally settled at Greenwich, Conn., developing an original line of artistic production, in which he tempered the crudeness of impressionism by a certain refined and tender sensibility, and mani fested a fine sense of color in its most delicate shades and subtile combinations. He has been called a "minor poet of the Without being a rich colorist, or a bold innovator he produced pictures fresh, original and finding their way to the heart by their pathetic simplic ity, the truthfulness of their detail and the ab sence of all flourish and self-consciousness in the apparent ease and directness of their tech nique. His typical theme was a winter land scape, a stream of water rushing down a ravine, befween thin edges of ice, and bare bushes on each side; a white house with dull colored roof, under a turbid gray sky; or the coolness, mois ture and silence of a snow scene, whose atmos phere he suggested with truly marvelous felic ity. If he was not fully appreciated in his life
time his paintings will doubtless grow in pop ular estimation, and win recognition as vital in cidents in the history of American art, gaining emphasis also from their personal interest as reflecting the artist's fine nature, his love of beauty in landscape, and his keen observation of the more fleeting and elusive phases of at mospheric change, the more sombre charms of rugged or barren scenery and clouded sky, in the seaboard of the Eastern States. An exhibi tion of his paintings was held in New York in 1913 and there was a Twachtman room at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, San Francisco, in 1915. His works are scattered throughout America, but he is well represented in all im portant galleries.