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Typhoon

coast, storms, south, centre and west

TYPHOON, name given by navigators to those tremendous rotatory storms of wind or hurricanes that visit the coast of Tonquin and China as far north as Ningpo and the south eastern coast of Japan. Typhoons are the cy clones of the Eastern Asiatic Coast. They occur from May to November but are most fre quent during July, August and September. They resemble the great hurricanes of the West Indies in their general characteristics, but with the main features more strongly marked. There is a depression of the barometer, over a space more or less circular, accompanying the ty phoon, but it is generally more contracted in area, and deeper and more abrupt than in European or American storms. It is not un common for the barometer, at the centre of the depression, to read 28.3 inches, and on rarer occasions to fall even as low as 27 inches, and the changes of pressure are very rapid, fre quently two or three inches in an hour. It is this enormous difference of atmospheric pres sure between neighboring places, and the con sequent rapidity of the fluctuation, which gives the typhoon its terribly destructive energy — the law regulating the strength of the wind being, that it is proportioned to the difference of pres sure between the place from which it comes and the place toward which it blows. The low pressure in the centre is confined to a very limited space, and since all round this space the pressure is greater, it follows that the level of the sea there will be higher. Hence a high wave frequently accompanies it typhoon, ad vancing inland, carrying with tt ruin and dis may, and sometimes bearing ships far over the level fields, where they are left stranded. Ty phoons have their origin in the ocean east of China, especially about Formosa, Luzon and the islands immediately south. They thence

proceed, in four cases out of five, from east northeast toward west southwest, rarely from cast southeast to west northwest, in other words, their course is generally along the coast of China. The whole body of the typhoon ad vances at the rate of 1..2 miles or more an hour; within the body thus traveling the winds often blow 80 to 100 miles an hour, whirling round the centre of atmospheric depression in a direction contrary to the motion of the hands of a watch, as do all the storms in the northern hemisphere. They thus rotate in the directions south, east, north, west, and travel along the coast, so that the coast feels the north side of the typhoon, while at a distance from the coast the south side alone is experienced. The rotation, however, is in circles not returning on themselves, nor opening outward by their centrifugal motion, but tending to blow some what inward upon the centre of lowest pressure. The intensity of the typhoon is aggravated by the large quantity of heat disengaged in the condensation of the vapor of the atmosphere into the deluges of rain which fall during the storm-10 to 12 inches of rain frequently fall ing in one day. The meteorological offices at Manila, Hongkong and Tokio publish special studies and charts of typhoons from time to time, while the general paths with special ex planations are published in the monthly pilot charts of the Pacific issued by the United States Hydrographic Office. Consult Algue, Jose,