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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27

Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night. Just Before Shakes Peare Began His Series Of Great Tragedies He Wrote 'twelfth Night' (1600-01) — The Last Of His Great Comedies. The Play Is Notable For Its Blending Of Romantic Beauty And Charm In The Story Of The Duke, Olivia, Viola And Sebastian With A Comic Underplot ...

Twentieth Century
Twentieth Century. The Opening Year Of The Latest Century Was Marked Somewhat Dramatically By The Close Of The Long Reign Over The British Empire Of Victoria Of England, Queen And Empress, Who Died 22 Jan. 1901; By The Assassination And Death 14 Sept. 1901 Of William Mckinley, President Of The ...

Twice Told Tales
Twice Told Tales, The, Was The Earliest Published Work Of Nathaniel Hawthorne With The Exception Of A Juvenile Romance, 'fan Shawe.' After His Graduation From Bowdoin College In 1825 Hawthorne Lived A Secluded Life At His Mother's Mod6st Home In Salem, And Wrote And Rewrote Many Tales. No Publisher Would ...

Twilight Sleep
Twilight Sleep. This Term Is Used As The Equivalent Of The German Term Dimmer Schlaf, A Fanciful Term Applied By Kronig And Gauss For The Method Used By Them In The De Livery Of Parturient Women At Their Private Hospital For Women In Freiburg, Germany. It Was Claimed By Them ...

Two Gentlemen Of Verona
Two Gentlemen Of Verona, The. 'the Two Gentlemen Of Verona' Would Seem To Be Shakespeare's Earliest Attempt At Romantic Comedy Of The Popular Italian Sort. The Play Is Mentioned In Meres's List In 1598, But Was Not Printed Before The Folio Of 1623, And Appears To Have Been Little Acted ...

Two Thirds Rule
Two-thirds Rule, A Provision Of Constitutional And Parliamentary Law Intended To Restrain And Prevent Unjust And Inconsiderate Action On The Part Of Majorities. It Was Un Known In The Legislative Assemblies Of Ancient Greece And Rome, And Has No Precedent In The Parliamentary History Of Great Britain. It May Be ...

Two Years Before The
Two Years Before The Mast, By Richard Henry Dana, Jr., Is A Truthful Narrative That Has All The Fascination Of Fiction. When The Author Was Advised To Try A Sea Voyage For His Health, Which Had Become Im Paired During His Student Days At Harvard, He Rejected The Conventional Pleasure ...

Tyler
Tyler, John, 10th President Of The United States: B. Greenway, Charles. City County, Va., 29 March 1790; D. Richmond, Va., 18 Jan. 1862. He Was The Second Son Of John Tyler, Governor Of Virginia (1808-11) And United States District Judge (1812-13), And Mary Armistead, The Only Daughter And Heiress Of ...

Tyler_2
Tyler, Wat, English Social Reformer: B. Colchester, Essex; D. London, 1381. Nothing Is Known Of His Antecedents. There Was Serious Cause For The Rebellion Which He Headed, But Like Men Of Other Ages He Had Ideas Beyond His Time, Which He Had Imbibed From The Teaching Of A Priest, John ...

Tyndall
Tyndall, Fin'dal, John, British Physi Cist: B. Leighlin Bridge, County Carlow, Ireland, 21 Aug. 1820,- D. Haslemere, Surrey, 4 Dec. 1893. After Secondary Schooling He Joined The Ord Mace Survey, With Which He Was Connected For Five Years. He Was Then Engaged In Railway Work, And In 1847 Became A ...

Type Casting Machines
Type-casting Machines. Every Book, News And Job-printing Office In Former Years Has Been Absolutely Dependent On The Type Founder, With His Elaborate Plant And His Estab Lished Fonts Of Type In Standard And Individual Copyrighted Faces. The Waste And Wear Was Large And Costly. Office Economics Compelled The Use Of ...

Typewriter
Typewriter, A Machine Operated By Means Of A Manual Keyboard, Which Produces Characters Resembling Those Of Ordinary Letter Press, As A Substitute For Handwriting, By The Impress Of Type. History.— The First Successful Typewriter Was An American Invention, And Was So Far Perfected In The Late Seventies Of The 19th ...

Typhoid Bacillus
Typhoid Bacillus. This Bacillus, The Cause Of Typhoid Fever, Was First Discovered By Eberth In 1880. He Found It In The Glands Of The Mesentery And In The Spleen. It Was Not Until 1884, However, That Gaffky Obtained The Organism In Pure Culture. He First Used A Potato Culture-medium And ...

Typhoon
Typhoon, Name Given By Navigators To Those Tremendous Rotatory Storms Of Wind Or Hurricanes That Visit The Coast Of Tonquin And China As Far North As Ningpo And The South Eastern Coast Of Japan. Typhoons Are The Cy Clones Of The Eastern Asiatic Coast. They Occur From May To November ...

Typhus Fever
Typhus Fever, A Highly Contagious Eruptive Fever, One Of The Exanthemata (q.v.), Formerly Known As Putrid, Ship, Jail Or Camp Fever, And By Other Names. The Disease Is Very Rare In The United States, And When It Appears It Is Usually In The Line Of Immigrant Travel. But Owing To ...

Typographical Union
Typographical Union, Interna Tional, A Society Of Typesetters, Compositors And Linotypers Banded Together For Mutual Pro Tection, For The Regulation Of Wages, Fixing The Number Of Apprentices Allowed To Each Estab Lishment, The Length Of Time Each Apprentice Must Serve In Order To Become A Master Work Man, And For ...

Typothete
Typothet)e, A Name Given To A Trade Guild Consisting Of Persons Connected With The Printing Trades, Both Workmen And Employers. In The Year 1465 The Emperor Frederick Iii Of Germany °permitted Printers To Wear Gold And Silver, And Both The Typographi And Typothetm Were Honored By Him With The Privilege ...

Tyrconnel
Tyrconnel, Ter-1611'g, Richard Tal Bot, Earl Of, Viceroy Of Ireland: B. About 1630; D. Limerick, 14 Aug. 1691. He Was The Youngest Son Of Sir William Talbot, A Prominent Figure In Politics Under James I. At Drogheda He Was With The Forces That Withstood Cromwell And One Of The Few ...

Tyre
Tyre, Bank Of. The City Of Tyre Was Ancient In The Time Of Alexander The Great. Directly Or Otherwise, Its Trade Extended To All Parts Of The Known World And Embraced Every Commodity Included In Commerce. Its Ships And Caravans Fetched Tin From Britain, Ivory And Gold From Africa, Spices ...

Tyrol
Tyrol, Tir'61 (ger. Ti-r61'), Or Tirol, Austria, A Crownland And Principality, Situated In The Western Part Of The Empire; 11,224 Square Miles In Area, And Bounded On The North By Bavaria, On The East By The Crownlands Of Salzburg And Carinthia, On The South By Italy And On The West ...

Tzetzes
Tzetzes, Tset'sez, Johannes, A Byzantine Author Of The 12th Century. His 'chiliades,' A Very Dull Collection Of 30,000 Apolitical Iambics," Whose Theme Is Stories Drawn From Greek His Tory And Mythology, Has Been Edited By Kiess Ling (leipzig 1826) ' • His A Résumé Of Homer's
Uccello
Uccello, Oo-chelle; (paolo Di Italian Painter : B. Florence, 1397; D. There, 147 . He Began As A Goldsmith And Worker In Metal, Assisting Lorenzo Ghiberti (q.v.) In The First Pair Of Gates Made By The Latter For The Bap Tistery At Florence. His Name Of Uccello (<(bircl))) Was Given ...

Uganda Protectorate
Uganda Protectorate, A British East Africa Protectorate Lying North Of Lake Victoria Nyanza And Bounded On The North By The 5th Parallel Of North Latitude, Dividing It From The Egyptian Sudan, On The East By Lake Rudolf And The British East Africa Protecto Rate, On The South By Victoria Nyanza ...

Uhde
Uhde, Fritz Von, German Historical And Genre Painter: B. Wolkenburg, Saxony, 22 May 1848; D. 1911. For A While A Student In The Dresden Academy, He Left The Institution To Enter The Saxon Army, In Which He Fought Dur Ing The Franco-prussian War And Became Cap Tain Of Cavalry. He ...

Uhland
Uhland, Oolant, Johann Ludwig, Ger Man Lyric Poet: B. Tiibingen, 26 April 1787; D. There, 13 Nov. 1862. He Studied Jurisprudence At Tiibingen And Was For A Time An Advocate At Stuttgart, Subsequently Giving His Attention To Linguistic Pursuits. His Earliest Poetry Dates From 1800 And The First Collection Of ...

Ulcer
Ulcer Is A Suppurating Soreproduced By The Destruction Of Some Part Of The Living Structure, Leaving A Hollow From Which Matter Is Discharged. Ulcers May Be Either Internal Cr External. They May Be Arranged Either Ac Cording To The Constitutional Or Specific Disease From Which They Are Derived Or According ...

Ulphilas Ulfilas
Ulfilas, Ulphilas, Or Wulfilas, Bishop Of The Goths: B. North Of The Danube, About 311; D. Constantinople, 383. He Was Con Secrated Bishop By Eusebius Of Nicomedia, Probably At Antioch In 341; And Though His Native Language Was Gothic, He Learned To Speak And Write Greek And Latin. Like All ...

Ultramicroscope
Ultramicroscope. An Optical Ap Paratus Designed For The Collective Study Of Particles That Are Too Small To Be Individually Seen By Methods Formerly In Use. It Is Not, Properly Speaking, A New Instrument, But Is Merely An Ordinary Microscope Provided With Certain Accessory Devices For Illuminating The Field In A ...

Ultramontanism
Ultramontanism, Term Which Origi Nated In France To Designate Certain Policies, Teachings And Tendencies Favored By The Church Ultra Montes, Across Or Beyond The Alps, And Opposed To The Interests Of The Gallican Church: Later, Ultramontanism Was Used To Denote The Whole Theological System Of The Church Of Rome And ...

Ulysses
Ulysses, (gr. &ova*, Olysseits, "the Hater"; Lat. Ulixes), Greek Hero. He Was King Of The Island Of Ithaca, Son Of Anticlea And Laertes. He Sailed With 12 Ships In The Greek Expedition Against Troy. During The Trojan War (q.v.) He Was Noted For His Eloquence, Sagacity And Prudence. He Was, ...

Umbrella
Umbrella, As Its Name Implies, An In Strument For Casting Shade. They Were Intro Duced From Asiatic Countries, Where They Are Of Great Antiquity, And Are Used As Protectors From The Sun's Rays, Rather Than From Rain. They Were Brought To England From Italy In The Early Part Of The ...

Un Curioso Accidente Ca
Un Curioso Accidente Ca Curi Ous Mishap)), A Three-act Prose Comedy In Italian By Carlo Goldoni, First Produced, As The Author's Apparently Indicate, In Venice In 1755 And Generally Regarded As His Masterpiece. Nevertheless, The Prestige Given Both In This Country And Elsewhere By Eleonora Duse To The Author's 'locandiera> ...

Uncleanness
Uncleanness, A Ceremonial In Various Religious Systems, Symbolizing The Lack Of Ritual Purity Of Fitness. In The Brahmanic System Food Cooked By A Sudra Or By An Outcast Is Unclean To The Brahman; He Loses Caste If He Eats Of It ; And He Contracts Ceremonial Unclean Ness If He ...

Uncompahgre Valley Project
Uncompahgre Valley Project. The Uncompahgre Valley Project Is One Of The Largest Construction Enterprises Undertaken By The United States Reclamation Service Under The Act Of 17 June 1902. It Effected The Irri Gation Of 150,000 Acres Of Arid Lands Lying On Both Sides Of The Uncompahgre River In South Western ...

Unconsciousness
Unconsciousness, A Condition Of Little Or No Consciousness. The Definition Of Con Sciousness (q.v.) Has Been Given In Another Vol Ume And It Remains Here To Consider Those De Grees And Kinds Of Deviations From Ordinary Conscious States, Particularly In The Subnormal Depressions. Under Unconsciousness May Be Grouped Two Or ...

Underground Temperatures
Underground Temperatures. In The Process Of Cooling The Earth Still Re Tains A Vast Volume Of Heat. This Heat Is Not Appreciable At The Surface Where Air Tempera Tures Prevail But It Is Manifest In Deep Mines And Borings Which Show A General Increase Of Temperature With Depth. The Rate ...

Underwood
Underwood, Francis Henry, Ameri Can Author: B. Enfield, Mass., 12 Jan. 1825; D. Edinburgh, Scotland, 7 Aug. 1894. He Was Educated At Amherst College, Studied Law In Kentucky, And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1847. He Returned To Massachusetts In 1849, Was Ap Pointed Clerk Of The State Senate ...

Underwriting
Underwriting, In Finance, A Method Of Floating The Bonds And Securities Of Large Cor Porations By Means Of Fiscal Agents Or Syndi Cates. The General Rule Governing The Under Writing Of New Securities Is That The Syndicates Shall Receive A Commission Of Cent On The Value Of The Securities Underwritten. ...

Unemployment
Unemployment. In The Sciences Of Economics And Sociology The Term Unemploy Ment Refers To An Industrial Condition In Which Large Numbers Of Workers Are Without Gainful Occupation. No Doubt In Feudal Times The Work Ing Classes Found During Trade Depression, War Periods And Other Cataclysms Periods Of Inac Tivity Leading ...

Ungulata
Ungulata, A Great And Heterogeneous Group Of Hoofed Mammals Which First Appeared In The Eocene Period As Small Marsh-dwelling Forms Scarcely Distinguishable From The Con Temporaneous Ancestors Of The Carnivora, But Which Early Became Differentiated Into Several Quite Distinct Series That Have Continued To Diverge Until In The Living Fauna ...

Unicorn Plant
Unicorn Plant, One Of The Popular Names Of Plants Of The Genus Martynia, Glan Dular, Pubescent And Fetid Herbs, Natives Of America. They Have Irregular Funnel Form Corollas, With Oblique Tubes, And Limbs Which Are Slightly Two-lipped. The Flowers Are Vel Vety, Yellowish-white And Purple-mottled, And Borne In Racemes On ...

Uniforms
Uniforms, Military And Naval, Special Costumes Used In An Army Or A Navy. While Badges Of Identification Have Been Known At All Epochs, And While The Followers Of A Lord Often Wore The Livery Of Their Master, The Use Of A Uniform Costume By Large Bodies Of Men Was Unknown ...

Unigenitus
Unigenitus, A-ni-jetri-tiis, The Bull (1713) Of Clement Xi By Which 101 Theological Propositions Of A Jansenistic Tenor Contained In The Writings Of Pasquier Quesnel Are Con Demned As Heretical, Scandalous, Impious, Etc. (see Quesnel ; Jansenism ). The Title Of The Bull Is Derived From Its Opening Words Uni Genitus ...

Union College
Union College, Located At College View, A Suburb Of Lincoln, Neb. It Is A Part Of The School System Of The Seventh-day Ad Ventists; The Site Was Chosen In 1890, And The College Opened To Students In 1891. It Is Avow Edly Denominational And Observes The Sabbath On The Seventh ...

Union League Of America
Union League Of America, The Began In 1862 In Order To Check The Spread Of Disaffection To The United States Government And To "make Loyalty Effective." The Movement Was Spontaneous; The Members Of The United States Sanitary Commission Began The Organiza Tion In 1862, In Ohio, Philadelphia And New York. ...

Union Pacific System
Union Pacific System. The Union Pacific Railroad Was Organized 1 July 1897, Un Der An Act Of The Legislature Of Utah Approved 22 Jan. 1897, To Carry Out The Reorganization Of The Union Pacific Railway Company,n And Now Includes The Union Pacific Railroad, The Oregon Short Line And The Oregon ...

Union Theological Seminary In
Union Theological Seminary In The City Of New York, The. It Was Founded In 1836, Under The Auspices Of The Presbyterian Church; The Directors And Pro Fessors Of The Seminary Give Their Assent To The Westminster Standards Of This Church, But Students Of All Denominations Are Freely Ad Mittcd. The ...

Union University
Union University, Formerly South Western Baptist University, Is Located At Jack Son, Tenn. The Baptists Of Tennessee, Realiz Ing The Necessity Of An Institution Under Their Control, Set About In 1845 For The Establishment Of Such A School, Especially For An Educated Ministry. It Was Located At Murfreesboro, Un Der ...

Union Of South Africa
Union Of South Africa, A Legisla Tive Union Of The Four Self-governing Colonies Of South Africa, Effected By The South Africa Act, Which Was Promulgated By Royal Proclama Tion Of Great Britain 20 Sept. 1909, And Became Effective 31 May 1910. The Original Provinces Of The Union Were Cape Of ...

Unionism
Unionism, The Principle Of Operating In Dustries By Union Labor; That Industrial System Through Which Corporations Or Other Employers Hire Their Men By Collective Bargaining With Organized Bodies Of Workmen. (see American Federation Of Labor; Trade Unions; Strikes And Locxours). Although Less Than 2 Per Cent Of The Active Workers ...

Unit Social Organization
Unit Social Organization, A So Ciological Experiment Which Aims To Bring All The People Into A More Active, Intelligent And Continuous Participation In Their Own Affairs, To Vitalize Municipal Government And Bring It Closer To The Lives Of The People. The Move Ment For This Social Plan Was Born In ...

Unitarianism
Unitarianism. The So Far As Is Known The Name Unitarian Originated In Hungary. It Was Used There At First As The Title Of An Association Of Religious Believers Of Various Sorts In The Year 1568 Or Thereabouts. Peter Bod, The Transylvanian Historian, Who Was Too Bitterly Prejudiced Against The Doctrines ...

United Brethren
United Brethren, Called Also Mo Ravians, A Religious Sect Or Society, The Unitas Fratrum, The Membership Of Which Was Made Up At First Of Moravians Or Bohemians, Descendants Of The First Followers Of John Huss (q.v.). A Party Of Moravians Or Hussites, Flee Ing From Persecution In Their Native Countries, ...

United Brethren Of Christ
United Brethren Of Christ, A Denomination Of Evangelical Christians Which, Though Not Organized And Named Till 1800, Had Its Origin In 1766 During A Revival Of Religion I Among The Immigrant German Population Of Pennsylvania And Northern Maryland Under The Ministrations Of Philip William Otterbein, A Missionary Of The German ...

United Irishmen
United Irishmen, A Society For Polit Ical Reform Founded In Belfast 1794; Its Aim Was To Promote Union Among All The People Of Ireland Without Distinction Of Creed, For The Preservation Of Their Liberties And The Exten Sion Of Their Commerce. At That Time Two Thirds Of The People Of ...

United Mine Workers Of
United Mine Workers Of America, The, The Largest Labor Union In America, Having For Its Object The Union Of All Mine "employees That Produce Or Handle Coal Or Coke In Or Around The Mines, And To Amelio Rate Their Condition By Means Of Conciliation, Arbitration Or Strikes." The National Executive ...

United States
United States, A Federal Republic Composed Of States, Territories, One District And Colonies (see Boundaries, Vrc.). The Official Title Is The United States Of America." Used In The Singular °the United States" Is In Gen Eral Acceptance As The Name Of The Country; And Its Citizens Are Universally Known As ...

United States
United States, The Wars Of The. As Generally Regarded, The United States Is Rated As One Of The Most Peaceable Nations In The World, The Idea Being That During The 145 Years Of Its Existence It Has Participated In But Six Great Wars, In All Of Which, Parenthetically, It Has ...

United States Architecture
United States Architecture. The Earliest Settlers Within The Present Limits Of The United States Have Left Us Little In The Way Of Architectural Remains. Leaving An Old And Civilized Country And Starting Life Anew In The Untrodden Vastness Of A Wild World Of Primeval Peoples, They Devoted Their Time And ...

United States Christian Com
United States Christian Com Mission, A Unique And Almost Unparalleled As Sociation In Its Origin And Operation, Which Came Into Existence During The Civil War, For The Pur Pose Of Promoting The Spiritual Welfare Of The Federal Soldiers, Sailors, Marines, Etc., While Al Leviating, Comforting And Humanizing Their Tem Poral ...

United States Commerce Court
United States Commerce Court, A Judicial Body Created By An Act Of Congress, Passed 18 June 1910. The Court Had Jurisdiction, Formerly Possessed By The United States Circuit Courts, Over (1) All Cases For The Enforcement And Collection Of Forfeitures Or Penalties And For The Infliction Of Any Criminal Punishment, ...

United States Flying Corps
United States Flying Corps. While The United States Marines Are The Oldest Branch (see Marines, United States) Of Our Fighting Forces, The United States Flying Corps Is Our Youngest Arm. Although The Wright Brothers Had Made Successful Long Distance Flights As Early As 1905, And France, England And Germany Quickly ...

United States Indian Train
United States Indian Train Ing And Industrial School, At Carlisle, Pa. It Was Established On The Present Site In 1879, But Its Real Beginning Was In 1875, When 74 Indians Were Brought As Prisoners Of War To Fort Marion, Saint Augustine, Fla. When Put To Work At The Fort They ...

United States Military Acad
United States Military Acad Emy, A National Institution At West Point, N. Y., For The Education Of Officers For The Regular Army, Organized In 1802. Candidates For Admission Must Be 17-22 Years Old, At Least Five Feet Four Inches In Height At 17, Five Feet Five Inches At 18 And ...

United States National Mu
United States National Mu Seum, A National Depository For Scientific And Historical Collections Under The Administration Of The Smithsonian Institution (q.v.), Located At Washington, D. C. The Beginning Of The Mu Seum Was Smithson's Cabinet Of Minerals, And Other Collections Gathered By Exploring Expedi Tions, Which Had Been Placed Under ...

United States Naval Reserve
United States Naval Reserve Force. When The United States Entered The European War, It Became Evident That In Hav Ing Both Naval And The United States Naval Reserve Force, The Na Tional Government Was Maintaining Two Organi Zations In Peace To Accomplish The Same End Of Providing Reserve Man Power ...

United States Presidential Candidates
United States Presidential Candidates. Since The Establishment Of The Government Of The United States There Have Been Several Important Changes In The Method Of Electing The Candidates For The Offices Of President And Vice-president. Prior To 1804, For Example, Each Elector Voted For Two Candidates For The Presidency. The One ...

United States Reclamation Service
United States Reclamation Service, A Bureau Of The Department Of The Interior Of The United States Government Created By Act Of Congress, 17 June 1902, For The Purpose Of Survey, Examination, Construc Tion And Operation Of Works For The Reclama Tion By Irrigation Of Arid And Semi-arid Lands. Funds Were ...

United States Sanitary Com
United States Sanitary Com Mission, The. An Organization Appointed By The United States Government During The Civil War, And Co-operating With It In Promot Ing The Health, Comfort And Efficiency Of The Armies. It Also Gave Aid To The Navy. At The Outbreak Of The War, The Quartermaster, Com Missary ...

United States Steel Corpora
United States Steel Corpora Tion, The. An Industrial Organization Formed In 1901 By The Amalgamation Of The Carnegie Steel Company, The Federal Steel Company, The National Tube Company, The American Steel And Wire Company, The National Steel Com Pany, The American Tin Plate Company, The American Sheet Steel Company, The ...

United States And Macedo
United States And Macedo Nian, Battle Of, In The War Of 1812. On 8 Oct. 1812 Stephen Decatur (q.v.) Sailed From Boston With His Frigate United States (rated As A 44 But Carrying 32 Long 24's And 22 Short 42's) And On 25 October Was Chased By The British Frigate ...