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tyre, city, ancient, ireland, phcenicia, sidon, inhabitants, time, wealth and assyria

TYRCONNEL, ter-1611'g, Richard Tal bot, EARL OF, viceroy of Ireland: b. about 1630; d. Limerick, 14 Aug. 1691. He was the youngest son of Sir William Talbot, a prominent figure in politics under James I. At Drogheda he was with the forces that withstood Cromwell and one of the few that escaped the massacre there. On the accession ofJames II Talbot was at once made Earl of Tyrconnel and placed in command of the troops in Ireland, where he strove to secure the king's independence of Par liament by favoring Roman Catholics in the army and in official preferments, at the expense of Protestants, many of whom he summarily dismissed. In 1687 he was made lord deputy of Ireland, an appointment that added dismay to the consternation which he had already spread among the English Protestants there, many of whom quitted the country, a great part of which was given over to lawlessness, coin / mercial deca and general wretchedness. In 1689, when James reached Ireland after his flight from England, he created the earl Duke of Tyrconnel. After the battle of the Boyne (1690), in which he fought, the duke retired to France, but in 1691 returned to Ireland and further endeavored to serve the cause of James, which, however, was soon hopelessly lost.

TYRE (mod. Arab. Sar), the most famous city of ancient Phcenicia, in lat. 33° 12' N., named probably from the double rock on which it was first founded. It was doubted among the ancients themselvef whether Tyre or Sidon was the older, and the question is not settled; though it seems certain that Tyre had long existed independently when Sidon, defeated by Ascalon transferred herself almost bodily to Tyre. there were two towns of Tyre closely connected in historical times — one on the con tinent, the other on the island opposite, to gether comprising, according to Pliny, about 19 Roman miles. The more important of the two was the continental town, Palm Tyrus; while the island-town served more or less for store houses, manufactories, arsenals and the like. The entire city was in a fertile region; and its magnificent combination of land and sea scenery formed the theme of many an ancient poet and seer. Nothing but myths have come down to us respecting Tyre in its earlier period. Its history dawns on us with Abibal, predecessor of the biblical Hiram, under whose rule (a.c. 980-947) Tyre attained its full glory and re nown. An alliance with Solomon was entered into; trading expeditions were undertaken jointly by the Israelites and the Phoenicians; and Solomon is supposed even to have married kfirain's daughter. During Hiram's reign, Tyre was much enlarged and embellished; and its two roadstead and harbors, among the wonders of the ancient world, date probably from the same period. He was followed, according to ancient writers, by Balaeastartus; after him reigned, for brief periods, his four sons, by the murder of the last of whom the throne became hereditary in the house of Ithobaal, the Ethbaal of Scripture, whose daughter was married to King Ahab. Tyre then appears to have gained the supremacy over Sidon and also spread her colonies far and wide. Shortly after the death of this king, Carthage was refounded by LH= (Dido), about 813 'Lc., in consequence of a popular demonstration which deprived her of the throne in favor of Pygmalion. This anew city' gradually diminished the importance of the old one; at least Tyre seems to have been weakened to such an extent by. the emigration

of its best elements that it disappears from history until the three great powers, Chaldma, Assyria and Egypt by turns endeavored to make themselves masters of the Tyro-Phcenician Coast, with its east and west trade. Shal maneser, king of Assyria, reduced Tyre after a long siege; and the whole of Phcenicia, the most important places of which had already thrown off their allegiance to Tyre, was ren dered tributary to Assyria. During the Chaldmo Egyptian struggle, Tyre, gain at the head of the country, sided with Egypt and was con quered by the Chaldmans. Once more the Phoenicians attempted to throw off the foreign yoke, and Nebuchadnezzar marched against them at the head of his armies. Having taken Jerusalem in B.C. 587, he reduced the whole sea-coast, except Tyre, which stood 12 years' siege by water and by land, ending not in sub jection, but only in an apparent submission, leaving the native sovereigns on their thrones, and their wealth and power untouched. In ac 538 Cyrus became master of Phcenicia, which at that time again was under Babylonian supremacy, and the hegemony was bestowed on Sidon. For a long time Phcenicia prospered under wise Persian rulers; but when Xerxes in his Greek wars, had completely destroyed the Phoenician fleet, and exhausted nearly all her resources, the exasperated inhabitants rose once more, but only to be utterly crushed. Sidon, at the head of the Revolution, was fired by its own inhabitants and again Tyre resumed the lead in 350 B.C. Having refused to pay alle giance to Alexander the Great after the battle of Issus, it was besieged by him in B.C. 332 and fell after seven months' hard resistance. Alex ander replaced the old inhabitants by new colonists, chiefly Carians; and though the city had been almost destroyed, it rose again after a brief period to wealth and power, and in ac. 315 was able to hold out 18 months against Antigonus. Under the Romans, Cleopatra re ceived Tyre as a present from Antony; but the last trace of its independent existence was taken from it by Augustus. A Christian com munity had then been founded there. The trade and manufacture of Tyre, aided by its exceptionally favorable naval position, gave it, even under Roman dominion, a high place among its sister cities; and once again, in A.D. 193, it even took active part in the contest between Septimius Severus and Pescennius Niger, which, resulting in the success of Severus, brought back to it some of its ancient distinction. In Saint Jerome's time it was again the most beautiful city of Phcenicia, and one of the most prosperous. cities of the whole East. In the 7th century it came under the dominion of the Saracens and so remained until taken by the Crusaders and in 1192 became the northern boundary of Christian territory in Palestine. It continued to flourish — still chiefly through its renowned manufacture of purple until 1516, when the conquest of Selim I, to gether with the newly-discovered route to Asia by the Cape of Good Hope, put an end to its - wealth and commerce and almost to its exist ence. Although there has been a slight im provement in its prospects of late, the magnifi cent city of old still presents a scene of desola tion and wretchedness. About 6,500 inhabitants now dwell in Sur, among the ruins of its ancient glory, finding scanty livelihood in exports of tobacco, cotton, wool and wood. Consult Berard, Victor, (Les Pheniciens et (Paris 1903).